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by Nicholas Saunders

[ Appendix 4 sec. 12 ] [ Index ] [ Appendix 5 ]

Appendix 4: Bibliography Quotations from reviews

Burger, A. "Drugs and People" University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, 1986. p. 65. This quotation, from the chapter on neurohormones, will be the sole example given of the irresponsible misinformation that can be published by experts in the field.

[in reference to designer drugs] "Others are synthetic compounds tried out by addicts in the hope that they might give them a new mental high. The most dangerous of these materials are 3-methylfentanyl and MDMA, a relative of methamphetamine. Both produce dangerous damage to the general health of the users and cause heroin-like addiction at unbelievably low doses."

Glennon, R.A., Rosecrans, J.A. and Young, R. Drug-induced Discrimination: A Description of the Paradigm and a Review of its Specific Application to the Study of Hallucinogenic Agents. Medical Research Reviews 3 289-340 (1983).

"Racemic - MDA produces (conditioned response) effects similar to those of DOM, however, administration of its N-methyl derivative, racemic MDMA, to the DOM-trained animals, resulted in disruption of behaviour."

Nichols, D.E. and Glennon, R.A. Medicinal Chemistry and Structure-Activity Relationships of Hallucinogens, in Hallucinogens: Neurochemical, Behavioral, and Clinical Perspectives Ed. B.L. Jacobs, Raven Press, New York. (1984)

"N-Alkylation of the phenethylamines abolishes or greatly attenuates biological activity. Two noteworthy exceptions are the (N-methyl and N-ethyl) 3,4-methylenedioxy substituted compounds. These retain potency nearly comparable to the parent MDA, but present a different qualitative picture. Their duration of action is reduced to about 1-1/2 to 2 hours and they produce only minor disruption of normal sensory processing. They apparently amplify empathy and would seem to be ideal candidates as adjuncts to psychotherapy."

Shulgin, A.T. Psychotomimetic Drugs: Structure-Activity Relationships. Handbook of Psychopharmacology Volume 11; Stimulants, Eds. L.L.Iversen, S.D. Iversen and S.H. Snyder, Plenum Press, New York. p. 292. (1978)

"MDMA has a higher threshold level than does MDA but otherwise it is very similar in potency. Within the effective dose range (100-150 mg orally) the effects are first noted very quickly, usually within one-half hour following administration. With most subjects the plateau of effects is reported to occur within another one-half hour to one hour. The intoxication symptoms are largely dissipated in an additional two hours, except for a mild residual sympathomimetic stimulation, which can persist for several additional hours. There are few physical indicators of intoxication, and psychological sequelae are virtually nonexistent. Qualitatively, the drug appears to evoke an easily controlled altered state of consciousness with emotional and sensual overtones very reminiscent of low levels of MDA."

Shulgin, A.T. Hallucinogens. Burger's Medicinal Chemistry, 4th Edition, Part III, Ed. M.E. Wolff, Wiley and Son, New York. p 1120. (1981)

"This affective interaction (a state of sensory amplification and enhancement without appreciable sympathomimetic stimulation, an easy communication between subject and observer) is even more clearly evident in the N-methyl homolog of MDA (i.e., MDMA) which is substantially free of perceptual distortion at effective dosages (75-150 mg)."

Shulgin, A.T., Chemistry of Psychotomimetics, Psychotropic Agents Part III, Alcohol and Psychotomimetics; Psychotropic Effects of Central Acting Drugs, Eds. F. Hoffmeister and G. Stille, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. p 14. (1982)

"Several of these substituted amphetamine analogs have been studied as their N-methyl homologues (in analogy with the relationship between amphetamine and methamphetamine). Although most show a striking drop in potency, MDMA (the N-methyl homologue of MDA) retains full activity."

Stafford, P. Psychedelics Encyclopedia, Revised Edition, J.P. Tarcher, Inc., Los Angeles, CA p 289. (1983)

"Synthesis of MDMA, active in the doses of the 75-100 mg range and shorter and milder in its effects than MDA, was not reported in the scientific literature until 1960. It has since been established that MDMA was one of the "Experimental Agents" tested at Edgewood Chemical Warfare Service, where it was labelled EA-1475. (MDA was labelled EA-1299)."

Weil, A. and Rosen, W. Chocolate to Morphine; Understanding Mind-active Drugs, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1983. p 108

"A newer drug, MDM (methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, also known as MDMA, Adam, and "XTC"), gives the same general effect (as MDA) but lasts four to six hours instead of ten to twelve. Because of the shorter duration of action, it seems gentler on the body with less day-after fatigue."