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E for Ecstasy
by Nicholas Saunders


[ Chapter 14 ] [ Index ] [ Appendix 2 ]

Appendix 1: Reference Section This section is written from my notes made while researching the book. The opinions and information are those expressed by the named sources, with the result that some conflict. Inclusion does not imply that I have checked that they are correct or that I have the same opinion. Where I have added comments, these are within square brackets.


  • 1. Report of US Army tests on MDMA, from Rick Doblin president of the Multi-disciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies in the U.S.
  • 2. PIHKAL (Phenethylamines I Have Known And Loved); A Chemical Love Story (book), by Alexander and Ann Shulgin. Published by Transform Press (Berkeley USA) at $18.95. Available from Compendium Bookshop, London
  • 3. Ecstasy the gentle mind bender? by Nicholas Albery, The Guardian 10/88
  • 4. Meetings at the Edge with Adam: A Man for All Seasons? by Philip Wolfson from Journal of Psychoactive Drugs Vol. 18/4 1986
  • 5. Ecstasy: The MDMA Story, by Bruce Eisner (book) published by Ronin Publishing Inc., PO Box 1035, Berkeley, CA 94701, USA. [new edition due out 1993]. My review of this book for International Journal on Drug Policy is reprinted here
  • 6. Ecstasy Information, from Release, a London drug agency
  • 7. Xochipilli: a context for Ecstasy, by Laura Fraser, from Whole Earth Review, 1992
  • 8. Differences Between the Mechanism of Action of MDMA, MBDB and the Classic Hallucinogens, by David Nichols, from Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol. 18/4 1986
  • 9. Why MDMA Should Not Have Been Made Illegal, by Marsha Rosenbaum and Rick Doblin, from the book The Drug Legalisation Debate
  • 10. Alcohol and Drug Research, Volume 7: Neurotoxicity of MDA and MDMA
  • 11. Ecstasy Revisited, by Bruce Eisner in Gnosis magazine, winter 1993
  • 12. The Background Chemistry of MDMA, by Alexander Shulgin, from Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol. 18/4 1986
  • 13. Ecstasy, by Miranda Sawer, from Select, July 1992
  • 14. Interview with Greg Poulter, advice team leader at Release, a London information agency for drug users, on 16/2/93
  • 15. 22nd report of the Expert Committee on Drug Dependence 1985, published by the World Health Organisation as part of its Technical Report Series
  • 16. Living with Risk (book), published by the British Medical Association, 1990
  • 17. Ecstasy - The Arrival of a Consciousness-Raising Drug (book), by Arno Adelaars, published by in de Knipscher, 1991
  • 18. Fax from Home Office, 23/2/93
  • 19. Manchester RIP, Kaleidoscope, BBC Radio 4, 6/2/93
  • 20. Drug seizures: Britain's growing habit from The Times, 20/1/94
  • 21. A visit to Arno Adelaars, a part-time purchaser of street samples of drugs for testing by the Dutch government. Amsterdam, October 1992
  • 22. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) figures, published by The U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1992
  • 23. Young People's Poll, by Harris Research Centre, January 1992
  • 24. Analgesic safety and efficacy of MDMA in modification of pain and distress of end-stage cancer, Charles Grob et al.
  • 25. Laing on Ecstasy by Peter Naysmith International Journal on Drug
  • 26. Phenomenology and Sequelae of MDMA use by Dr. Mitchell Liester, Dr. Charles Grob et al., Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 180/6 1992.
  • 27. Hands of Light (book), by Barbara Ann Brennan, Bantam, 1988
  • 28. Subjective reports of the Effects of MDMA in a Clinical Setting by George Greer and Requa Tolbert from Journal of Psychoactive Drugs Vol. 18/4
  • 29. MDMA Reconsidered, by Robert Leverant, from Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol. 18/4 1986
  • 30. Visit to Dr. John Henry at the National Poisons Unit at Guy's Hospital, London, 11/12/92
  • 31. Through the Gateway of the Heart (book) published by Four Trees Publications, San Francisco 1985
  • 32. A researcher reports from the rave by Russell Newcombe, Druglink, January 1992
  • 33. The Use of Ecstasy and Dance Drugs at Rave Parties and Clubs: Some Problems and Solutions, by Dr. Russell Newcombe, paper presented at a symposium on Ecstasy, Leeds, November 1992
  • 34. Recreational MDMA use in Sydney: a profile of Ecstasy users and their experiences with the drug, by Nadia Solowij et al., in the British Journal of Addiction, 1992
  • 35. Fit for anything, by Sarah Champion, The Guardian, 12/4/93
  • 36. Nutrients for blocking phenethylamine damage, by Dr. Brian Leibovitz, in MAPS newsletter, Spring 1993
  • 37. The Phenomenology of Ecstasy Use, by Teresa O'Dwyer, Senior Registrar of Adult Psychiatry at St Thomas' Hospital, Morpeth, November 92
  • 38. Entry in Micromedex, vol. 75, a hospital database printout from the National Poisons Unit at Guy's Hospital, London
  • 39. Drugs and Magic, edited by George Andrews, published by Panther, 1975
  • 40. A visit to Lifeline, a non-statutory drug agency in Manchester, 3 August 1992
  • >41. Women, sexuality and Ecstasy Use - The Final Report 1993, by Sheila Henderson, published by Lifeline, 101 Oldham St Manchester M4 1LW at #15+#1.50 postage.
  • 42. Luvdup and DeElited, by Sheila Henderson, researcher for Lifeline, a non-statutory drug agency in Manchester. A paper given at South Bank Polytechnic in May 1992
  • 43. The Adam Experience, a guide for first-time users, by Starfire, 1985
  • 44. MDMA and Human Sexual Function, by John Buffum and Charles Moser, from Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol. 18/4 1986
  • 45. A survey of MDMA use in London, by Adam Winstock, a senior house officer in respiratory medicine at the Hammersmith Hospital Royal Postgraduate Medical School (unpublished)
  • 46. Using Psychedelics Wisely by Myron Stolaroff in Gnosis winter 1993
  • 47. Phone call to Somerset House: population of Great Britain in various age groups 1991
  • 48. Young People in 1992, by Schools Health Education Unit, at Exeter University
  • 49. The Normalisation of Recreational Drug Use Amongst Young People in North West England by Fiona Measham, Russell Newcombe & Howard Parker, accepted by British Journal of Sociology December 1993
  • 50. The Independent, August 92
  • 51. Toxicity and deaths from MDMA from The Lancet by John Henry et al. August 1992
  • 52. Numbers of Ecstasy-related deaths between January 1988 and July 1992, held by the National Poisons Unit at Guy's Hospital on 8 March 1993
  • 53. A report of five deaths associated with the use of MDEA and MDMA, by Dr. G. Dowling, Journal of the American Medical Association, 1987
  • 54. Conversation with Dr. Les King, team leader of the drugs intelligence laboratory at the Forensic Science Laboratory at Aldermaston, part of the Forensic Science Service, a Government agency, 14/12/92
  • 55. Medicine Now, 9/3/92, BBC Radio 4
  • 56. Phone conversation with Dr. Russell Newcombe, lecturer in social policy and social work at Manchester University, 19/2/93
  • 57. Effects of MDMA on Autonomic Thermoregulatory Responses of the Rat, by Christopher Gordon et al., 1990
  • 58. Notes from meeting with Dr. John Merrill of NW Regional Health Authority
  • 59. MDMA - The Dark Side of Ecstasy, by Gregory Hayner and Howard McKinney, from Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol. 18/4 1986
  • 60. British Medical Journal vol. 305 August 1992 letters in reply to Henry's article
  • 61. Use of MDMA to relieve symptoms in terminal cancer patients; phase one protocol, by Dr. Charles Grob. (Fax received 17/11/92)
  • 62. Designer Drug Confusion: a focus on MDMA, by Jerome Beck and Patricia Morgan, from Journal of Drug Education, 16/3/86
  • 63. Risk assessment and the FDA, by Rick Doblin, 1988.
  • 64. Markers of Neuronal Injury and Degeneration, by Miller and O'Callaghan.
  • 65. Fenfluramine Hydrochloride, from Martindale Pharmacopeia
  • 66. The Neurotoxicity of MDMA and Related Compounds, by Dr. Molliver, in The Neuropharmacology of Serotonin, published in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1990
  • 67. Fluoxetine, from Martindale Pharmacopeia
  • 68. A Trip into the Unknown, by Alison Abbott and David Concar, in New Scientist, 29/8/92
  • 69. The MDMA Neurotoxicity Controversy: Implications for Clinical Research, by Dr. Charles Grob
  • 70. Ecstasy Revisited, by Bruce Eisner, Gnosis Magazine, winter 1993
  • 71. Assessing Neurotoxicity of Drugs of Abuse, by Dr. James O'Callaghan, NIDA monograph 1993
  • 72. fax from Rick Doblin, president of MAPS, 21/9/92
  • 73. Neurotoxicity of MDMA and related compounds: anatomic studies, Molliver et al. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1990
  • 74. Ecstasy: towards an understanding of the biochemical basis of the actions of MDMA, by Marcus Rattray, from Essays in Biochemistry, vol. 26 1991
  • 75. Letter from Jeremy Millar, Department of social work, Aberdeen University, 20/11/92
  • 76. MDMA - Non-medical Use and Intoxication, by Ronald Siegel, from Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol. 18/4 1986
  • 77. Lifeline, Ecstasy, and the world, by Mark Gilman
  • 78. No more junkie heroes? by Mark Gilman, from Druglink May 1992
  • 79. Ecstasy and Recreational Drug Use in Wirral by C Toddhunter, Liverpool University
  • 80. Hansard 17/1/1992. Written answers by John Patten, then Minister of State at the Home Office
  • 81. Phone call to Mr R Allen, at the Home Office Statistics Dept., 1/3/93
  • 82. Deaths reported by the mass media related to raving and/or dance drugs, 1989 to 1993, from Rave Research Bureau, 25 Halkyn Avenue, Liverpool L17 2AH
  • 83. Licensed to Thrill, in New Scientist, 29/8/92
  • 84. Skiing dangers, The Sunday Times, 24/1/93
  • 85. Rave- and Ecstasy-related admissions in West Lothian 1991-1992; a review by Dr. P. Freeland submitted for publication to The Annals of Emergency Admission
  • 86. The Psychological and Physiological Effects of MDMA on Normal Volunteers, by Joseph Downing, from Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol. 18/4 1986
  • 87. Phone conversation with Mike Evans, at the Home Office 25/2/93
  • 88. Statistics of Drug Seizures, up to the end of 1991 from Home Office Statistical Bulletin, published by the Government Statistical Service, September 1992
  • 89. Interview with Detective Chief Superintendent Derek Todd, Drugs Coordinator with the No 9 Regional Crime Squad, at Spring Gardens, London, 16/2/93
  • 90. Phone conversation with Arno Adelaars, an Amsterdam-based part-time purchaser of street samples of drugs for testing by the Dutch Government, 25/2/93
  • 91. Interview with Detective Chief Superintendent Tony White, head of the drugs and money laundering branch of the National Criminal Intelligence Service, which is under the control of the Home Office. At Spring Gardens, London 19/2/93
  • 92. Media Seminar held on 17th November in London 1992 as part of European Drug Prevention Week
  • 93. 'Ecstasy and intracerebral haemorrhage, by JP Harries and R De Silva, in The Scottish Medical Journal, October 1992
  • 94. Interview with Rick Doblin, president of the Multi-disciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies in High Times, December 1992.
  • 95. The Swiss Medical Society for Psycholytic Therapy. President: Dr. Med. Juraj Styk, Birmannsgasse 39, 4055 Basel, Switzerland
  • 96. Listening to the Heart of Things (book), by Dr. Samuel Widmer, a Swiss psychotherapist who uses MDMA with some clients, subtitled The Awakening of Love, published by Nachtschatten 1989
  • 97. Dancing and rave drugs, by Russell Newcombe, 1991
  • 98. Can drugs enhance Psychotherapy? by Grinspoon and Bakalar, from American Journal of Psychotherapy, 1986
  • 99. Ecstasy: the clinical, pharmacological and neurotoxicological effects of the drug MDMA (book), edited by Stephen Peroutka, published by Kluwer Academic Publishers 1990
  • 100. The Biology of Human Information Processing by Enoch Callaway from Journal of Psychoactive Drugs Vol. 18/4 1986
  • 101. Research in Russia, from MAPS newsletter, Nov. 1991
  • 102. Attenuation of Alcohol Consumption by MDMA in Two Strains of Alcohol-Preferring Rats, by Amir Rezvani et al., 1991, from Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour, vol. 43
  • 103. MDMA - The Psychoactive Substance for Therapy, Ritual and Leisure (book), by Weigle and Rippchen, published by Der Grune Zweig [no date]
  • 104. International Journal on Drug Policy, Vol. 2 Oct. 1989 Ethnographic Notes on Ecstasy Use Among Professionals by Rosenbaum Morgan and Beck
  • 105. MDMA use as an adjunct to spiritual pursuit by Watson and Beck in Journal of Psychoactive Drugs July 1991
  • 106. Misuse of Ecstasy, letters in the British Medical Journal, 1/8/92
  • 107. Possible Interaction Between MAOI and Ecstasy, letter to American Journal of Psychiatry, 149:3, March 1992
  • 108. Behavioural and neurochemical effects of prenatal MDMA exposure in rats, by St Omer et al., in Neurotoxicol Teratol, vol. 13
  • 109. The Placebo Effect in Healing, by Michael Jospe, 1978, pp 22-25 related to Ecstasy
  • 110. Psychedelics Encyclopedia, by Peter Stafford, 3rd edition published by Ronin, 1992
  • 112. Visit to August de Loor, administrator of a 'safe house' which offers drug sample testing and advice to the public - dealers included - from a basement office in AmsterdamAppendix 6
  • 113. Drugs Arena, National Criminal Intelligence Service, 1990
  • 114. Ecstasy makers face 14 years jail, from The Daily Telegraph, 10/11/92
  • 115. Traffickers, by Nicholas Dorn et al., published by Routledge, 1992
  • 116. High Time for Harm Reduction, by Russell Newcombe, Druglink, Jan. 1987
  • 117. The Reduction of Drug-Related Harm, a conceptual framework for theory, practice and research, by Russell Newcombe, from The reduction of drug-related harm, edited by O'Hare et al., (book) published by Routledge 1992
  • 119. Harm Reduction Courses
  • 120. Rave Research Bureau, 25 Halkyn Avenue, Liverpool L17 2AH
  • 121. Telephone interview with Marcia Ash of Dance Ambulance, a first aid service in Manchester for ravers, 6/2/93
  • 122. Marketing in 1992 and Beyond, a paper presented to a Royal Society of Arts conference in 1988 by E Nelson
  • 123. Phone interview with a couple who use E for playing music
  • 124. Interview with couple who use E while floating
  • 125. 'E'sy sex: a cultural myth in perspective paper by Andrew Thomson presented at Medical Sociology Conference, York University 1993
  • 126. Albert Hofmann Foundation Meeting 12/10/93
  • 127. Meeting with Dr. Charles Grob 13/10/93
  • 128. Psychedelic Explosion, by Inner Astronaut, an unpublished manuscript
  • 129. Interview with Jack, undergoing MDMA therapy with a guide
  • 130. Visit to Dr. Manuel Madriz at the military hospital in Managua, Nicaragua, 22-24 October, 1993
  • 131. Psychological Effects of MDE in Normal Subjects by Leo Hermle et al. Neuropsychopharmacology 1993 8/2
  • 132. Interview with Daniel Kaufman, 27/10/93
  • 133. Interview with Max Shertz, 27/10/93
  • 134. Interview with Dr. Smith, a licensed psychotherapist
  • 135. Interview with Dr. Debby Harlow, 30/10/93
  • 136. Interview with Martye Kent, 1/11/93
  • 137. Phone conversation with Dr. George Ricaurte, 16/11/93
  • 138. Meeting with Clive, 1/11/93
  • 139. Interview with John, a dealer in California, 11/93
  • 140. Interview with Jonathan in San Francisco, 2/11/93
  • 141. Visit from Stuart Frescas of Purdue University, 11/1/94
  • 142. Faxes from Rick Doblin
  • 143. Letter from George Ricaurte of Johns Hopkins University, 23/11/93
  • 144. Letter and manuscript from Myron Stolaroff 1/94
  • 145. The Times, 14/2/94
  • 146. Attend rave organised by Club Together, 12/2/94
  • 147. Phone call to Health Development Club (+44 [0]594 844 991), 14/2/94
  • 148. Sunday Times 13/2/94
  • 149. Letter from Kay Thompson on The Lion Path 12/1/94
  • 150. Ulster, from San Francisco Chronicle 26/10/94
  • 151. Sunday Times 9/1/94
  • 152. Letter from Dr. John Henry of the National Poisons Unit, 13/12/93
  • 153. X at the Crossroads by Dr. J Newmeyer of Haight-Ashbury Free Clinic, San Francisco, June 1993
  • 154. The Pursuit of Ecstasy - the MDMA Experience by Gerome Beck and Marsha Rosenbaum published Feb 1994 by State University of New York Press at $14.95
  • 155. An analysis of the potential for HIV transmission among stimulant-using ravers by Drs Hilary Klee and Julie Morris, Manchester Metropolitan University, June 1993
  • 156. Chronic MDMA use: Effects on Mood and Neuropsychological Function? by George Ricaurte et al. in American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 18/3, 1992
  • 157. Serotonin Neurotoxicity after MDMA: A Controlled Study in Humans by George Ricaurte et al. 1994 Neuropsychopharmacology in press.
  • 158. Survey among therapists with experience of MDMA-assisted therapy by Dr. Debby Harlow (unpublished).
  • 159. Raves threaten jobs in drinks trade, article in The Times, Oct 1993
  • 160. Dutch drug makers surrender bucketfuls of Eve from Reuters, 29/7/93
  • 161. Meeting with Dr. Jerry Beck and Dr. Marsha Rosenbaum, 3/11/93
  • 162. Killer paracetamol, Sunday Times 14/11/93
  • 163. The Complete Book of Ecstacy by U.P. Yourspigs from Synthesis Books, PO Box 610341, Birmingham, Al. 35261, USA
  • 164. The Independent May 1993 and 3/3/94; The Guardian 14/5/94
  • 165. Letter from Clive 14/2/94
  • 166. The Nature of the MDMA Experience by Ralph Metzner and Sophia Adamson in ReVision, Spring 1988
  • 167. Interview with illicit manufacturers of MDMA, 2/94
  • 169. Manufacturers of MDMA in Switzerland
  • 170. Ecstasy by Nadia Solowij in Current Opinion in Psychiatry 6/3 1993
  • 171. Police to stop raves in The Guardian 25/2/94
  • 172. Ecstasy and Eve, leaflet by Lifeline
  • 173. MDA and Snowballs, leaflet by Lifeline
  • 174. Letter from Sheila Henderson, 26/2/94
  • 175. Visit to The Fridge, a gay club in Brixton, 26/2/94
  • 176. Mapping Toxicant-Induced Nervous System Damage with a Cupric Silver Stain: A Quantitative Analysis of Neural Degeneration Induced by MDMA by Karl Jensen et al. 1993 in Assessing Neurotoxicity of Drugs of Abuse, NIDA monograph 136:133-149
  • 177. Metabolic and Thermoregulatory Responses of the Rat maintained in acrylic or wire screen cages: Implications for Pharmacological Studies by Christopher Gordon in press Physiology and Behaviour 1994
  • 178. Metabolism of 'ecstasy' by CYP2D6) by Tucker et al. published in abstract form in Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 36:144P, 1993
  • 179. National Audit of Drug Misuse in Britain by the Institute for the Study of Drug Dependence 1992
  • 180. Ecstasy' ingestion: a case report of severe complications in J. Royal Soc. Medicine April 1993
  • 181. Young People in 1992 by John Balding, University of Exeter
  • 182. The Ecstasy Study by Lifeline, 1993 published as part of Sheila Henderson's Final Report [see reference 41]
  • 183. Turn on, Log in, Reach out, leaflet advertising SFRAVES
  • 184. Reinforcing Subjective Effects of MDMA May be Separable from its Neurotoxic Actions by McCann and Ricaurte, J. Clinical Psychopharmacology 6/1993
  • 185. Effects of [MDMA] on acoustic and tactile startle reflexes in rats by Kehne et al. in. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1/1992
  • 186. MDMA-induced dopamine release: effect of dopamine uptake inhibitors by Nash and Brodkin in J Pharmacol Exp Ther 11/1991
  • 187. Phone call from Clive 5/3/94
  • 188. Phone call from Graham 5/3/94
  • 189. Secrets of Methamphetamine Manufacture, $24 from Loompanics and Books by Phone.
  • 190. Effect of MDMA on sexual behaviour of male rats by Dornan et al. in Pharmacol Biochem Behav July 1991
  • 191. Effects of MDMA on sleep by Allen et al. in Sleep September 1993
  • 192. Illicit psychostimulant use in Australia by Dave Burrows et al. monograph, Australian Government Publishing Service, 1993
  • 193. Amphetamine Use among Young Adults in Sydney by Julie Hando and Wayne Hall, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, 1993
  • 194. Letter from myself in New Scientist, 18/12/93
  • 195. Independent 7/3/94
  • 196. Letter from Fiona Measham, 2/94
  • 197. Letter from Kellie Sherlock, 3/94
  • 198. Session with therapy group using Ecstasy, 3.94
  • 199. Attitudes and Ecstasy Use by Mark Conner and Kellie Sherlock, University of Leeds. Paper presented at a conference in Lisbon September 1993.
  • 200. Phone call from Andrew Thomson, 3/94
  • 201. London Programme, ITV 27/3/94
  • 202. Interview with a Benedictine monk, 2/4/90
  • 203. Interview with a rabbi at the West London Synagogue, 5/6/94
  • 204. Visit from a Zen monk and teacher