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Ayahuasca: alkaloids, plants & analogs
assembled by Keeper of the Trout
Section 1 :
Reported Occurrences of Harmine

Organization is alphabetical; by family.

References in the following occurrence listings which have incomplete citations in our reference section are primarily from Allen & Holmstedt 1980, which covers literature through April 1979.

These references include all listed for the species mentioned and therefore may include extraneous references as Allen & Holmstedt did not segregate by alkaloid only by species.

Work is still ongoing to eliminate any extraneous entries. The numbered references that can be found under harmaline and tetrahydroharmine in their respective occurrence lists are the same as Allen & Holmstedt's references given below.


Amsonia tabernaemontana
    Along with other b-carbolines, i.e. Harmalol and Tetrahydroharman (Eleagnine)
      Lutomski et al. 1967 and Lutomski & Nowicka 1968
      Shulgin & Shulgin 1997, page 713.


Calycanthus occidentalis
      Lutomski & Nowicka 1968 and Lutomski et al. 1967
    Aerial parts and leaf
      Shulgin & Shulgin 1997, page 713.


Arenaria kansuensis
  Whole plant
         Wu et al. 1989.


Kochia scoparia
  7 mg of harmine was recovered from 14 kg of dried aerial parts; along with Harman (40 mg).
      Drost-Karbowska et al. 1978


Carex brevicollis
  Along with several other b-carbolines, i.e. Harman , Brevicarine, Brevicolline, Dehydrobrevicolline, Homobrevicolline, and Harmol.
      Blaha et al. 1971 and Lazur'evskii & Terent'eva 1976 and Sharipov & Cheban 1975 and Shcherbinina et al. 1970 and Terent'eva & Borokov 1960 and Terent'eva et al. 1969 and Terent'eva et al. 1969 and Terent'eva et al. 1970 and Vember et al. 1967 and Vember et al. 1968 and Zsadon et al. 1977


Eleagnus angustifolia
  Aerial parts and roots
      Shulgin & Shulgin 1997, page 714.


Oxytropis puberula
  Aerial parts
      Shulgin & Shulgin 1997, page 714.


Banisteriopsis species (probably B. caapi but no voucher or inadequate botanical ID; most of these were likely impure)
  1.7% harmine reported in stem bark and 0.8% in the woood (2.2% total alkaloid in bark and 1.06% in wood)
      Elger 1928
      Also by Barriga Villalba 1925 and Perrot & Raymond-Hamet 1927 and Wolfes & Rumpf 1928

Banisteriopsis argentea
  Along with several other b-carbolines, i.e. Harmaline, Nb-Methyl-tetrahydroharman (Leptocladine), 5-Methoxy-tetrahydroharman [Note 2], and Tetrahydroharmine (Leptaflorine).
      Ghosal 1972a [Ed. Reported in leaf and stem.]
      and Ghosal & Mazumdar 1971 [Ed: as 110 mg from 1.8 kg of dry leaf. as basic gum]
      and Ghosal et al. 1971

Banisteriopsis caapi
  Along with several other b-carbolines, i.e. Harmine-Nb-oxide, Harmol, Harmaline, and Tetrahydroharmine (Leptaflorine).
  Roots, leaves, stems, branches and seeds.
      Chen & Chen 1939 and Costa 1954 and Der Marderosian et al. 1968 and Der Marderosian et al. 1970 and Hochstein & Paradies 1957 and and Lewin 1928 Koblicova & Trojanek 1965 and Koblicova & Trojanek 1966 and Rivier & Lindgren 1972 and Schultes et al. 1969]
  Found both harmine and harmaline in Banisteriopsis caapi.
      Der Marderosian et al. 1968b

Banisteriopsis inebrians
  Along with several other b-carbolines, i.e. Harmol, Harmaline, and Tetrahydroharmine (Leptaflorine)
      O'Connell & Lynn 1953 and Poisson 1965 and Ribas et al. 1972 and Saa & Jose 1972
  Found only harmine in Banisteriopsis inebrians
      Der Marderosian et al. 1968b

Banisteriopsis lutea
      Raymond-Hamet 1941

Banisteriopsis muricata

A Banisteriopsis species
  Reported to contain a similar profile
      Urzua et al. 1972

Callaeum antifebrile (= Cabi paraensis)
      de Siqueira-Jaccoud 1959 and Mors & Zaltzman 1954)


Pandanus utilis
  In nuts/seeds
      Unconfirmed tlc by Appleseed

Pandanus odoratissima
  In nuts/seeds; higher in hard core than fibrous exterior
      Unconfirmed tlc by Appleseed


Passiflora edulis Sims In fruit juice. (Along with Harmaline, Harmol, Harman.) Hsü et al. 1981
  In seed and root.
      Shulgin & Shulgin 1997, page 714.
  [Tryptamine and N-Acetyl-tryptamine are reported from the leaf. Smith 1977b citing Slaytor & McFarlane 1968.]
  Harman was the only alkaloid listed for this species by Allen & Holmstedt 1980 citing Loehdefink & Kating 1974 and Neu 1956.]
  In fruit juice of var. Flavicarpa Lutomski & Malek 1975 and Lutomski et al. 1975.

Passiflora incarnata
  Along with several other b-carbolines i.e. Harman , Harmol, Harmalol and Harmaline.
      Bennati & Fedeli 1968 and Hultin 1965 and Loehdefink & Kating 1974 and Lutomski & Nowicka 1968 and Lutomski 1959 and Lutomski et al. 1967 and Lutomski et al. 1968 and Neu 1954a and Neu 1954b and Neu 1956 and Theodossiou 1965 and Wucherpfennig 1966. [Poethke et al. 1970 is listed but observed only harman]
  In leaf, stem and seed.
  Shulgin & Shulgin 1997, page 714.


Calligonum minimum
  Aerial parts and root
    Shulgin & Shulgin 1997, page 713.


Thalictrum foetidum
    Shulgin & Shulgin 1997, page 714.


Arariba rubra Mart. (= Sickingia rubra K. Schum.)

   [Ed.: This is most likely a typo that should read Harman not Harmin]
      Manske 1965 citing Rieth 1861 and Späth 1919.

Galium aparine
  Aerial parts
      Shulgin & Shulgin 1997, page 714.

Uncaria spp.
      Shulgin & Shulgin 1997, page 714.
[Ed.: !?? Reference? This was run by Phillipson & Hemingway 1975, as a pure reference material but I can locate no reported isolation.
Their article states that they ran reference material for all of the "types" of alkaloids reported but did not state that all reference materials had been reported from Uncaria species. Harmine is not mentioned is any of their multiple articles detailing the elaboration of Uncaria alkaloids.]


Grewia villosa
  In root. Along with Harmol, Harmalol and Harman. No amounts given.
      Bashir et al. 1986


Fagonia cretica
  Minor alkaloid; entire plant
      Festi & Samorini 1997 cited Ahmed et al. 1969 and Iyer & Joshi 1975.

Peganum harmala
  Along with several other b-carbolines i.e. Harmol, Ruine, Harmalol, Harmaline, Dihydroruine, and Tetrahydroharmine (Leptaflorine) and other alkaloids].
      Chatterjee & Ganguly 1968 and Fischer 1901 and Fritzsche 1847 and Gill & Raszeja 1971 and Göbel 1841 and Gröger 1959 and Gröger & Mothes 1960 and Holmstedt & Lindgren 1967 and Ivanov et al. 1965 and Khashimov et al. 1971 and Kurbanov & Zharekev 1974 and Kutlu & Amal 1967 and McKenzie et al. 1975 and Muhtadi et al. 1974 and Nettleship & Slaytor 1971 and Nettleship & Slaytor 1974 and Oryekhov 1930 and Ovejero 1947 and Piekhanova & Aktanova 1965 and Reinhard et al. 1968 and Rozenfeld 1930 and Safina 1970 and Schipper & Volk 1960 and Siddiqui 1962 and Siddiqui & Kemal 1964.)
  Obtained in 3% yield from Peganum harmala roots. Rozenfeld 1931
  Present only in useful amounts in the root and seeds although present in small amounts in other parts.

Tribulus terrestris L.
  Minor alkaloid; along with other b-carbolines i.e. Harman and Harmol.
      Gill & Raszeja 1971 and Lutomski & Nowicka 1968 and Lutomski et al. 1967.
  Along with vasicine, harman and other bases
      Culvenor 1973 p. 438 cited Borkowski & Lutomski 1960
  Trace amounts in seeds.
      Festi & Samorini 1997 cited Lutomski & Nowicka 1968
  Reported in whole plant and seeds. In local central Texas specimens, it appears to mostly be present in the roots. (Appleseed)

Zygophyllum fabago L.
  Minor alkaloid: along with other b-carbolines i.e. Harman and Harmol.
      Allen & Holmstedt cited Borkowski 1959 and Lutomski & Nowicka 1968 and Lutomski et al. 1967 and Sokolov 1952) (Culvenor 1973, p. 438, cited Borkowski 1959) (Festi & Samorini 1997 cited Lutomski et al. 1967 and Lutomski & Nowicka 1968 for harmine and Borkowski 1959 for other alkaloids.)
The previous occurrence listings, unless stated to the contrary, were largely from Allen & Holmstedt 1980, which covers literature through April 1979.

Please see note above concerning these references.


Snuff from unidentified botanical source, as prepared by Surára Indians (collected 1956), was found to contain: Harmine, Harmaline and Tetrahydroharmine; Holmstedt & Lindgren 1967. They also mentioned the report of Bernauer 1964 finding only Harmine and Tetrahydroharmine in Surára snuff also called Epéna and the report of Biocca et al. 1964. [Ed.: This can also be found listed in the literature as Galeffi et al. 1964] finding only Harmine, Harmaline and H4harmine in Tucano snuff called Paricŕ.]

Epena snuff from the Surára (via H. Becher)
   Harmine- 1.3% [with THH - 0.02%]
      Bernauer 1964.

Trace amounts also reported in the Butterflies; Acraea andromacha, Heliconius cydno galanthus, H. erato petiverana, H. ethilla eucoma, H. melpomene rosina, H. sara thamar, and H. wallacei flavescens.
      Cavin & Rodriguez 1988.

Has been identified in tobacco smoke.
      Shulgin & Shulgin 1997.

Notes #
  1. The use of the phrase "whole plant" means that the whole plant was analyzed rather than its parts. It does not mean that the alkaloid occurs in all parts but rather that it occurs somewhere in the plant. All such analytical presentations need better definitions of actual alkaloid distribution as it can easily lead to an erroneous interpretation when there is unequal alkaloid distribution within the plant's different tissues.
  2. Oddity. Substitution at this position in the naturally occurring simple b-carbolines has only been reported for this compound.