1999 Van Tonningen MDMA & Pregnancy Study
Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu [Pregnancy Outcome after Ecstasy Use],
by M.M. van Tonningen-van Driel; J.M. Garbis-Berkvens; W.E. Reuvers-Lodewijks
Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde Vol 143 (No 1) Jan 2 1999; 27-31
[Article in Dutch]
OBJECTIVE: To determine if use of ecstacy during pregnancy has any harmful effects on pregnancy and the (unborn) child.
DESIGN: Prospective, descriptive.
METHODS: After the Teratology Information Service of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment. Bilthoven, the Netherlands, was approached by a physician or midwife for information, the pregnancies that involved the use of ecstacy were followed by a follow-up questionnaire one month after the estimated date of birth.
RESULTS: A total of 49 pregnancies were followed. For 43 women, exposed early in pregnancy, data on course of pregnancy and health of baby are known. There were 3 elective terminations of pregnancy and 2 spontaneous abortions. There were 40 live-born babies (including one set of triplets); one of them had a congenital cardiac malformation. Beside ecstacy the mothers frequently also used other substances potentially harmful to pregnancy and child. The pregnancies were often unplanned; previous pregnancies had frequently been terminated.
CONCLUSION: The sample size was too small to draw conclusions. As yet spontaneous abortions and congenital malformations did not appear to occur more frequently in pregnancies with use of ecstacy. The lifestyle of the ecstacy users seemed to be potentially harmful for pregnancy and child.