Erowid
 
 
Plants - Drugs Mind - Spirit Freedom - Law Arts - Culture Library  
New, Vintage, and Signed Blotter Art
Donate $75 or more & get a piece of displayable blotter art,
some pieces signed by luminaries such as Ram Dass, John Lilly,
Dennis McKenna, Ken Kesey, or the Shulgins
MDMA
Timeline
by Erowid
1898 Some claim that Fritz Haber was the first to publish a synthesis for MDMA, but this appears not to the case. 1, 2   [Details]
1912 MDMA first synthesized by Anton Köllisch and patented by Merck Pharmaceuticals in Germany.    [Details] [More Info]
1927 Merck chemist Max Oberlin conducts the first animal testing with MDMA while investigating 'adrenaline- or ephetonine-like' substances. 3  
1953 The Army Chemical Center studied MDMA toxicity by giving MDMA to guinea pigs, rats, mice, monkeys, and dogs. It is determined to be less toxic than MDA. 4  
1965 Alexander Shulgin synthesizes MDMA but does not yet try it. 5  
1967-1975 The first small underground batches of MDMA are synthesized. Relatively few individuals have tried it at this point. 6   [Details]
Aug 1970 First published case report of recreational MDMA use. 7   [Details] [More Info]
1972 Police identify MDMA in samples seized from a recreational drug user in Chicago area. 8  
Sep 1976 Alexander Shulgin begins working with MDMA personally and introducing others to it. 9, 10   [Details]
c. 1977 MDMA begins to be available on the street as a recreational drug. 11  
1977 Great Britain amended its Misuse of Drugs Act (1971) to include as Class A all compounds structurally derived from an N-alkyl-alpha-methylphenethylamine by substitution in the ring with an alkylendioxy substituent. This legislation encompassed all ring substituted amphetamines (including MDA, MDE, MDMA, etc). Class A is the most controlled category of drugs in Britain.   
1978 First scholarly characterization of MDMA is published. 12   [Details]
1977 - 1981 Only eight individuals seek emergency room treatment after the use of MDMA during this four year period according to the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). 11  
1981 - 1985 There are zero people who seek emergency room treatment after the use of MDMA during this four year period, according to the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). 11  
Mar 10-15, 1985 Conference on MDMA 13   [Details]
Jul 1, 1985 MDMA temporarily placed into Schedule I by the DEA under emergency scheduling provisions.   
May 18-19, 1986 MDMA Conference    [Details]
1987 First published report of a human death due to MDMA use. 14  
Dec 22, 1987 MDMA is removed from schedule I because of improper procedure in its original emergency scheduling by the DEA. 15  
Mar 23, 1988 MDMA permanently placed in Schedule I. 16  
Mar 23, 1988 MDMA is placed back into Schedule I without challenge.   
1991 Alexander and Ann Shulgin publish PiHKAL, documenting over 250 phenethylamines, including MDMA, mescaline, 2C-B, 2C-T-7, 2C-T-2, and many others. 5  
1994-1999 During this 5 year period, there were 27 Ecstasy-related deaths in the U.S. as reported by SAMSA 17  
2000 - 2001 Nearly 20 deaths around the world are attributed to tablets containing PMA sold as Ecstasy. 18   [Details]
Feb 2, 2001 The State of Ecstasy: The Medicine, Science and Culture of MDMA    [Details] [More Info]
Early 2000s The term "Molly" becomes common as a term for powdered or crystalline ecstasy/MDMA with the implication that Molly is more pure than Ecstasy as a type of black market retail MDMA. 19   [Details]
Apr 1, 2004 Peter Jennings Reporting: Ecstasy Rising    [Details] [More Info]


References
  1.   Cousto H. Forschung und Praxis der Gesundheitsfoerderung. 2001.
  2.   Schmidt-Semisch H. "Ecstasy: Die Droge der 90er-Jahre?" in Hans Gros (ed.). Rausch und Realitaet. Eine Kulturgeschichte der Drogen. Klett, 1998;Vol 3:136-151.
  3.   Freundenmann RW, Öxler F, Bernschneider-Reif S. "The origin of MDMA (ecstasy) revisited: the true story reconstructed from the original documents." Addiction History. 2006.
  4.   Hardman HF, et al. "Relationship of the Structure of Mescaline and Seven Analogs to Toxicity and Behavior in Five Species of Laboratory Animals". Toxicol Applied Pharmacology. 1973;25:299-309.
  5.   Shulgin AT, Shulgin A. PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story. Transform, 1991.
  6.   Erowid. Unpublished communications with Alexander Shulgin and Nick Sand.
  7.   Sreenivasan, V.R. Problems in Identification of Methylenedioxy and Methoxy Amphetamines. J. Crim. Law 63 304-312 (1972).
  8.   Gaston, T.R. and Rasmussen, G.T. Identification of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine. Microgram 5 60-63 (1972).
  9.   Shulgin AT. Alexander Shulgin : Pharmacology Notebook 1 : 1960 to 1976. Published by Erowid Feb 2008.
  10.   Shulgin AT, Shulgin A. PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story. Transform, 1991.
  11.   Eisner B. Ecstasy, the MDMA Story. Ronin, 1994.
  12.   Shulgin AT, Nichols DE. Characterization of three new psychotomimetics. The Pharmacology of Hallucinogens. The Psychopharmacology of Hallucinogens. 1978;.
  13.   Ecstasy: The Complete Guide : A Comprehensive Look at the Risks and Benefits of MDMA, edited by Julie Holland (2001), page 389.
  14.   Dowling GP, et al. "'Eve' and 'Ecstasy': A Report of Five Deaths Associated with the Use of MDEA and MDMA". JAMA. 1987;257:1615-7.
  15.   US v. Spain, 825 F2d 1426
  16.   DEA. Microgram. Apr 1988;Vol XXI(4):59.
  17.   Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
  18.   DEA. "The Hallucinogen PMA". Drug Intelligence Brief. Oct 2000.
  19.   Erowid. 2010.