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MDMA Bibliography
A Categorized Collection of Relevant Papers
by Erowid.org
Compiled Jan 2001

In 2001, MAPS & Erowid completed the first version of a comprehensive collection of over 1,000
scholarly articles published about MDMA. It is available in the Erowid References Vault.

In light of this, the list below is no longer updated; it covers studies up till 2001.


  1. Neurotoxicity
    1. Overviews
    2. Human Studies
    3. Animal Studies
    4. Hyperthermia
  2. Neuroprotection
    1. Antioxidants
    2. SSRIs
    3. Other
  3. Memory & Cognitive Effects
    1. Human Studies
    2. Animal Studies
 
  1. Pregnancy & Birth Defects
    1. Overviews
    2. Human Studies
    3. Animal Studies
  2. General Pharmacology
  3. General Health
    1. Teeth
    2. Fatalities
  4. Psychotherapy & Therapeutic Uses

1. NEUROTOXICITY

See MDMA Neurotoxicity Vault for current discussion.

OVERVIEWS

Is MDMA (`Ecstasy') Neurotoxic in Humans? An Overview of Evidence and of Methodological Problems in Research,
Curran HV
Neuropsychobiology, 2000; 42:34-41
[View Reference]

Is MDMA a Human Neurotoxin? Diverse Views from the Discussants,
Turner JJD, Parrott AC
Neuropsychobiology, 2000; 42:42-48
[View Reference]


HUMAN STUDIES

Positron emission tomographic evidence of toxic effect of MDMA ('Ecstasy') on brain serotonin neurons in human beings,
McCann UD, Szabo Z, Scheffel U, Dannals RF, Ricaurte GA
Lancet, 1998; 352(9138):1433-7
[View Reference]

Reduced in vivo binding to the serotonin transporter in the cerebral cortex of MDMA ('ecstasy') users,
Semple DM, Ebmeier KP, Glabus MF, O'Carroll RE, Johnstone EC
Br J Psychiatry, 1999; 175:63-9
[View Reference]

Serotonin neurotoxicity after (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy'): a controlled study in humans,
McCann UD, Ridenour A, Shaham Y, Ricaurte GA
Neuropsychopharmacology, 1994; 10(2):129-38
[View Reference]

Aminergic metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid of humans previously exposed to MDMA: preliminary observations,
Ricaurte GA, Finnegan KT, Irwin I, Langston JW
Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1990; 600:699-708; discussion 708-10
[View Reference]

Ecstasy—long-term effects on the human central nervous system revealed by positron emission tomography,
Obrocki J, Buchert R, Vaterlein O, Thomasius R, Beyer W, Schiemann T
Br J Psychiatry, 1999; 175:186-8
[View Reference]

Cognitive performance in (+/-) 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') users: a controlled study,
McCann UD, Mertl M, Eligulashvili V, Ricaurte GA
Psychopharmacology (Berl), 1999; 143(4):417-25
[View Reference]

Monoamine metabolites in the cerebralspinal fluid of recreational users of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; 'Ecstasy'),
Peroutka SJ, Pascoe N, Faull KF
Research Comm in Subs Abuse, 1987; 8(3-4):125-138
[View Reference]


ANIMAL STUDIES

Altered serotonin innervation patterns in the forebrain of monkeys treated with (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine seven years previously: factors influencing abnormal recovery,
Hatzidimitriou G, McCann UD, Ricaurte GA
J Neurosci, 1999; 19(12):5096-107
[View Reference]

Reorganization of ascending 5-HT axon projections in animals previously exposed to the recreational drug (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy'),
Fischer C, Hatzidimitriou G, Wlos J, Katz J, Ricaurte GA
J Neurosci, 1995; 15(8):5476-85
[View Reference]

(+/-)3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine selectively damages central serotonergic neurons in nonhuman primates,
Ricaurte GA, Forno LS, Wilson MA, DeLanney LE, Irwin I, Molliver ME, Langston JW
JAMA, 1988; 260(1):51-5
[View Reference]

MDMA-induced neurotoxicity: parameters of degeneration and recovery of brain serotonin neurons,
Battaglia G, Yeh SY, de Souza EB
Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 1988; 29(2):269-74
[View Reference]

Biochemical and histological evidence that methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA) is toxic to neurons in the rat brain,
Commins DL, Vosmer G, Virus RM, Woolverton WL, Schuster CR, Seiden LS
J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 1987; 241(1):338-45
[View Reference]

Evidence that both intragastric and subcutaneous administration of methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (MDMA) produce serotonin neurotoxicity in rhesus monkeys,
Kleven MS, Woolverton WL, Seiden LS
Brain Res, 1989; 488(1-2):121-5
[View Reference]

The relationship between the degree of neurodegeneration of rat brain 5-HT nerve terminals and the dose and frequency of administration of MDMA ('ecstasy'),
O'Shea E, Granados R, Esteban B, Colado MI, Green AR
Neuropharmacology, 1998; 37(7):919-26
[View Reference]

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced serotonin deficits are followed by partial recovery over a 52-week period. Part I & Part II,
Sabol KE, Lew R, Richards JB, Vosmer GL, Seiden LS
J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 1996; 276(2):846-54, 855-65
[View Reference]

A neurotoxic regimen of MDMA suppresses behavioral, thermal and neurochemical responses to subsequent MDMA administration,
Shankaran M, Gudelsky GA
Psychopharmacology (Berl), 1999; 147(1):66-72
[View Reference]


HYPERTHERMIA

Small Changes in Ambient Temperature Cause Large Changes in 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)-Induced Serotonin Neurotoxicity and Core Body Temperature in the Rat,
Malberg JE, Seiden LS
J Neurosci, 1998 Jul 1; 18(13):5086-94
[View Reference]

Age-dependent sensitivity of rats to the long-term effects of the serotonergic neurotoxicant (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) correlates with the magnitude of the MDMA-induced thermal response,
Broening HW, Bowyer JF, Slikker W Jr
J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 1995; 275(1):325-33
[View Reference]

5-HT loss in rat brain following 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), p-chloroamphetamine and fenfluramine administration and effects of chlormethiazole and dizocilpine,
Colado MI, Murray TK, Green AR
Br J Pharmacol, 1993; 108(3):583-9
[View Reference]

The spin trap reagent alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone prevents 'ecstasy'-induced neurodegeneration of 5-hydroxytryptamine neurones,
Colado MI, Green AR
Eur J Pharmacol, 1995; 280(3):343-6
[View Reference]




2. NEUROPROTECTION

ANTIOXIDANTS

Alpha-lipoic acid prevents 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA)-induced neurotoxicity,
Aguirre N, Barrionuevo M, Ramirez MJ, Del Rio J, Lasheras B
Neuroreport, 1999 Nov 26;10(17):3675-80
[View Reference]

Effect of ascorbate and cysteine on the 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced depletion of brain serotonin,
Gudelsky GA
J Neural Transm, 1996;103(12):1397-404
[View Reference]

Neurotoxicity of MDMA: neurochemical effects,
Schmidt, C. J. and J. H. Kehne
Ann N Y Acad Sci, 1990; 600:665-80; discussion 680-1
[View Reference]


SSRIs

MDMA-induced neurotoxicity: parameters of degeneration and recovery of brain serotonin neurons,
Battaglia G, Yeh SY, de Souza EB
Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 1988; 29(2):269-74
[View Reference]

Acute Psychological Effects of 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy') are Attenuated by the Serotonin Uptake Inhibitor Citalopram,
Liechti ME, Baumann C, Gamma A, Vollenweider FX
Neuropsychopharmacology, 2000; 22(5)
[View Reference]

The serotonin uptake inhibitor citalopram reduces acute cardiovascular and vegetative effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('Ecstasy') in healthy volunteers,
Liechti ME, Vollenweider FX
J Psychopharmacol, 2000;14(3):269-74
[View Reference]

Neurotoxicity of the psychedelic amphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine,
Schmidt, C. J.
J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 1987; 240(1):1-7
[View Reference]

Reversal of the acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine by 5-HT uptake inhibitors,
Schmidt, C. J. and V. L. Taylor
Eur J Pharmacol, 1990; 181(1-2):133-6
[View Reference]

Involvement of the serotonin transporter in the formation of hydroxyl radicals induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine,
Shankaran M, Yamamoto BK, Gudelsky GA
Eur J Pharmacol, 1999 Dec 3;385(2-3):103-10
[View Reference]

Effects of "Ecstasy" blocked by serotonin reuptake inhibitors,
Stein DJ, Rink J
J Clin Psychiatry, 1999 Jul;60(7):485
[View Reference]


OTHER

CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) transgenic mice show resistance to the lethal effects of methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA),
Cadet JL, Ladenheim B, Baum I, Carlson E, Epstein C
Brain Res, 1994; 655(1-2):259-62
[View Reference]

Superoxide radicals mediate the biochemical effects of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA): evidence from using CuZn-superoxide dismutase transgenic mice,
Cadet JL, Ladenheim B, Hirata H, Rothman RB, Ali S, Carlson E, Epstein C, Moran TH
Synapse, 1995; 21(2):169-76
[View Reference]

Overexpression of human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase in transgenic mice attenuates oxidative stress caused by methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy),
Jayanthi S, Ladenheim B, Andrews AM, Cadet JL
Neuroscience, 1999;91(4):1379-87
[View Reference]

In vitro reactivation of rat cortical tryptophan hydroxylase following in vivo inactivation by methylenedioxymethamphetamine,
Stone DM, Hanson GR, Gibb JW
J Neurochem, 1989; 53(2):572-81
[View Reference]

Acute inactivation of tryptophan hydroxylase by amphetamine analogs involves the oxidation of sulfhydryl sites,
Stone DM, Johnson M, Hanson GR, Gibb JW
Eur J Pharmacol, 1989; 172(1):93-7
[View Reference]




3. MEMORY & COGNITIVE EFFECTS

OVERVIEWS

Does Ecstasy cause memory deficits? A review of studies of memory function in Ecstasy users,
Gamma A
MAPS Bulletin, 2000 Nov 21; 10(2)
[View Reference]

Ecstasy (MDMA): a review of its possible persistent psychological effects,
Morgan MJ
Psychopharmacology (Berl), 2000 Oct;152(3):230-48
[View Reference]


HUMAN STUDIES

Impaired cognitive performance in drug free users of recreational ecstasy (MDMA),
Gouzoulis-Mayfrank E, Daumann J, Tuchtenhagen F, Pelz S, Becker S, Kunert HJ, Fimm B, Sass H
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2000; 68:719-725
[View Reference]

Memory disturbances in 'Ecstasy' users are correlated with an altered brain serotonin neurotransmission,
Reneman L, Booij J, Schmand B, van den Brink W, Gunning B
Psychopharmacology (Berl), 2000; 148(3):322-4
[View Reference]

Cognitive performance in (+/-) 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') users: a controlled study,
McCann UD, Mertl M, Eligulashvili V, Ricaurte GA
Psychopharmacology (Berl), 1999 Apr; 143(4):417-25
[View Reference]

Cognitive performance in recreational users of MDMA of 'ecstasy': evidence for memory deficits,
Parrott AC, Lees A, Garnham NJ, Jones M, Wesnes K
J Psychopharmacol (Oxf), 1998; 12(1):79-83
[View Reference]

Working memory deficits in current and previous users of MDMA ('ecstasy'),
Wareing M, Fisk JE, Murphy PN
Br J Psychol, 2000; 91:181-188
[View Reference]

Memory impairment in abstinent MDMA ('Ecstasy') users,
Bolla KI, McCann UD, Ricaurte GA
Neurology, 1998; 51(6):1532-7
[View Reference]

Memory deficits associated with recreational use of 'ecstasy' (MDMA),
Morgan MJ
Psychopharmacology (Berl), 1999; 141(1):30-6
[View Reference]

Cognitive performance amongst recreational users of 'ecstasy',
Rodgers J
Psychopharmacology (Berl), 2000; 151(1):19-24
[View Reference]

Toxic effect of MDMA on brain serotonin neurons,
Klugman A, Hardy S, Baldeweg T, Gruzelier J
Lancet, 1999; 353(9160):1269-70; discussion 1270-1
[View Reference]

Reduced in vivo binding to the serotonin transporter in the cerebral cortex of MDMA ('ecstasy') users,
Semple DM, Ebmeier KP, Glabus MF, O'Carroll RE, Johnstone EC
Br J Psychiatry, 1999; 175:63-9
[View Reference]

Chronic 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) use: effects on mood and neuropsychological function?,
Krystal JH, Price LH, Opsahl C, Ricaurte GA, Heninger GR
Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse, 1992; 18(3):331-41
[View Reference]

MDMA ('ecstasy') consumption in the context of polydrug abuse: a report on 150 patients,
Schifano F, Di Furia L, Forza G, Minicuci N, Bricolo R
Drug Alcohol Depend, 1998; 52(1):85-90
[View Reference]

Ecstasy (MDMA) effects upon mood and cognition: before, during and after a Saturday night dance,
Parrott AC, Lasky J
Psychopharmacology (Berl), 1998; 139(3):261-8
[View Reference]


ANIMAL STUDIES

Behavioural analysis of the acute and chronic effects of MDMA treatment in the rat,
Marston HM, Reid ME, Lawrence JA, Olverman HJ, Butcher SP
Psychopharmacology (Berl), 1999 May;144(1):67-76
[View Reference]

Effects of cortical serotonin depletion by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on behavior, before and after additional cholinergic blockade,
Robinson TE, Castenada E, Wishaw IQ
Neuropsychopharmacology, 1993;8(1):77-85
[View Reference]




4. PREGNANCY & BIRTH DEFECTS

HUMAN STUDIES

Does prenatal exposure to ecstasy cause congenital malformations? A prospective follow-up of 92 pregnancies,
McElhatton PR, Bateman DN, Evans C, Pughe KR, Thomas SHL
Br J Clin Pharmacology, 1998; 45:184
[View Reference]

Congenital anomalies after prenatal ecstasy exposure,
McElhatton PR, Bateman DN, Evans C, Pughe KR, Thomas SHL
Lancet, 1999; 354(9188):1441-2
[View Reference]

Prenatal exposure to amphetamines. Risks and adverse outcomes in pregnancy,
Plessinger MA
Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am, 1998; 25(1):119-38
[View Reference]

Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu [Pregnancy Outcome after Ecstasy Use],
van Tonningen-van Driel MM, Garbis-Berkvens JM, Reuvers-Lodewijks WE
Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde, 1999; 143(1):27-31
[View Reference]


ANIMAL STUDIES

The role of dopaminergic systems in the perinatal sensitivity to 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in rats,
Aguirre N, Barrionuevo M, Lasheras B, Del Rio J
J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 1998; 286(3):1159-65
[View Reference]

Behavioral and developmental effects of two 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) derivatives,
Bronson ME, Barrios-Zambrano L, Jiang W, Clark CR, DeRuiter J, Newland MC
Drug Alcohol Depend, 1994; 36(3):161-6
[View Reference]

A study of the neurotoxic effect of MDMA ('ecstasy') on 5-HT neurones in the brains of mothers and neonates following administration of the drug during pregnancy,
Colado MI, O'Shea E, Granados R, Misra A, Murray TK, Green AR
Br J Pharmacol, 1997; 121(4):827-33
[View Reference]

Behavioral and neurochemical effects of prenatal methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) exposure in rats,
St Omer VE, Ali SF, Holson RR, Duhart HM, Scalzo FM, Slikker W.
Neurotoxicol Teratol, 1991; 13(1):13-20
[View Reference]

Serotonergic modulation of rat pup ultrasonic vocal development: studies with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine,
Winslow JT, Insel TR
J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 1990; 254(1):212-20
[View Reference]




5. GENERAL PHARMACOLOGY

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy'): pharmacology and toxicology in animals and humans,
Steele TD, McCann UD, Ricaurte GA
Addiction, 1994; 89(5):539-51
[View Reference]

The molecular mechanism of 'ecstasy' [3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)]: Serotonin transporters are targets for MDMA-induced serotonin release,
Rudnick G, Wall SC
Proc Natl Acad Sci, 1992; 89:1817-1821
[View Reference]

3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) analogues exhibit differential effects on synaptosomal release of 3H-dopamine and 3H-5-hydroxytryptamine,
McKenna DJ, Guan XM, Shulgin AT
Pharmacol Biochem Behav, 1991; 38(3):505-12
[View Reference]

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine-induced inhibition of neuronal firing in the nucleus accumbens is mediated by both serotonin and dopamine,
Obradovic T, Imel KM, White SR
Neuroscience, 1996; 74(2):469-81
[View Reference]

Ecstasy: towards an understanding of the biochemical basis of the actions of MDMA,
Rattray M
Essays Biochem, 1991; 26:77-87
[View Reference]




6. GENERAL HEALTH

TEETH

The occurrence of toothwear in users of Ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine),
Milosevic A, Agrawal N, Redfearn PJ, Mair LH
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol, 1999 Aug; 27(4):283-287
[View Reference]

An association between the regular use of 3,4 methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (ecstasy) and excessive wear of the teeth,
Redfearn PJ, Agrawal N, Mair LH
Addiction, 1998; 93(5):745-8
[View Reference]


FATALITIES

Amphetamine derivative fatalities in South Australia—is "Ecstasy" the culprit?,
Byard RW, Gilbert J, James R, Lokan RJ
Am J Forensic Med Pathol, 1998 Sep; 19(3):261-5
[View Reference]

Ecstasy, 3-4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), a fatality associated with coagulopathy and hyperthermia,
Chadwick IS, Curry PD, Linsley A, Freemont AJ, Doran B
J R Soc Med, 1991; 84(6):371
[View Reference]

A fatal overdose with 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine derivatives,
Forrest ARW, Galloway JH, Marsh ID, Strachan GA, Clark JC
Forensic Sci Int, 1994 Jan; 64(1):57-9
[View Reference]

Toxicity and deaths from 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy"),
Henry JA, Jeffreys KJ, Dawling S
Lancet, 1992 Aug 15; 340(8816):384-7
[View Reference]

Pathology of deaths associated with "ecstasy" and "eve" misuse,
Milroy CM, Clark JC, Forrest ARW
J Clin Pathol, 1996; 49(2):149-53
[View Reference]

Five MDMA Related Deaths,
Graeme P. Dowling, MD; Edward T. McDonough III, MD; Robert O. Bost, PhD
JAMA, Mar 27, 1987; 257: 1615-1617
[Full Text]




7. PSYCHOTHERAPY & THERAPEUTIC USES

MDMA Psychotherapy: an Annotated Bibliography,
Stuart R
Master's Thesis Project, 2000 Oct; John F. Kennedy Univ.
/chemicals/mdma/mdma_journal2.shtml
[Full Text]

The Therapeutic Use of MDMA,
Greer GR, Tolbert R
Ecstasy: The clinical, pharmacological and neurotoxicological effects of the drug MDMA, 1990; S. J. Peroutka Boston, Kluver Academic Publishers:21-36
[Full Text]

Can drugs be used to enhance the psychotherapeutic process?,
Grinspoon L, Bakalar JB
Am J Psychother, 1986; 40(3):393-404
[Full Text]

Phenomenology and sequelae of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine use,
Liester MB, Grob CS, Bravo GL, Walsh RN
J Nerv Ment Dis, 1992; 180(6):345-52; discussion 353-4
[Full Text]

The new psychotherapy: MDMA and the shadow,
Shulgin A
Eleusis, 1995; 3:3-11
[Full Text]

Is there a case for MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in the UK? (Editorial),
B Sessa
J Psychopharmacol. 2007;21(2):220-4.
[Full Text]

MDMA, politics and medical research: have we thrown the baby out with the bathwater? (Editorial),
B Sessa, DJ Nutt
J Psychopharmacol. 2007;21(8):787-91.
[Full Text]