From: email@example.com (Gnosis) Date: Sun, 12 Feb 95 10:08:22 EET Newsgroups: alt.drugs Subject: LSD Frequently Asked Questions [ FAQ ] The Usenet alt.drugs LSD FAQ Last updated 30 Dec 1994 Size 113 KB Authors : dozens of people on the Net Original editor: unknown Previous editor: honig@buckaroo.ICS.UCI.EDU (David Honig) Current editor: firstname.lastname@example.org (Jani Poijarvi) ***** NOTES: [this is just the editor bitching about stuff, if you want to get down to business skip to the next section] The FAQ is currently suffering from 'virgins writing about sex' syndrome since the current editor (me!) has never used LSD. I do have -some- technical knowledge regarding the subject, and some of my friends have used other psychedelics
, but I do not claim to be an expert, and I have merely tried to organize the previous chaotic mess with little regard to finding out if the info within is actually correct. Hence, if somebody more qualified than me wants the job, please drop me note at the address above. The primary change, aside from just cleaning up junk (spelling mistakes, witty sig files, etc), has been the removal of over 100K of DMT info which, while interesting, has no place in an LSD FAQ. Also, stuff that's "cute" but really quite irrelevant (stories about people pitching no-hitters on acid and crunchy PostScript graphics of the LSD molecule) has been omitted. It's all available in separate files on hyperreal.com [now archived at erowid.org] anyway. All told, the file shrank from nearly 290K to a more manageable 113K. Lots of work still needs to be done. While the FAQ explains the background and chemistry and all nicely, it does very little to prepare for the user for the trip itself or the changes in mindset and attitude that will most probably occur after the trip. I attempted to do something about that by adding that little "Aftereffects" section at the end, but that's not nearly enough. Input is very welcome. ***** Synopsis / Table of Contents: LSD (definition, introduction) Delysid (medical fact sheet for pharmaceutical LSD, pharmacology) Cautions, Real And Imagined: Addiction Potential (none) Adulterants (the strychnine myth, manufacturing impurities, etc.) Bad Trips (what they are, how to avoid, what to do) Myths (stamps for children, staring at the sun..) Dangers (LSD isn't for morons...) Flashbacks (what they are, post-traumatic stress syndrome) Insomnia (common, what to do) Tolerance (caquired and lost quickly (3 days), no withdrawal) Background: Anthropology (and history) Botany (sources in nature: mushrooms, ergot, morning glories, hawaiian baby woodrose, tropical plants) Chemistry (structure) Mechanism of Action (uncertain) Related Compounds (indoles: psilocybin, dimethyltryptamine (DMT) ) Manufacture (forget it) Drug Testing (don't worry) Legal Scheduling (sched. 1, no medical uses in US (despite past effective use) ) Pragmatics: Set and Setting (how to have a positive experience; LSD != beer) Storage (keep in a cool dark dry place) Combinations (cannabis is good, otherwise be careful) Aftereffects (a user's viewpoint as to why it's a good thing) References & Further Reading: (Recommended) _Psychedelic Encyclopedia_ by Peter Stafford _LSD: My Problem Child_ by Albert Hofmann _Licit & Illicit Drugs_ (Consumer Reports) _Storming heaven : LSD and the American dream_ by Jay Stevens ***** FORMATTING: '*****' major division (usually a change of topic) '.....' minor division (usually a change of author of text) ***** LSD Generic name for the hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide-25. Discovered by Dr. Albert Hofmann in 1938, LSD is one of the most potent mind-altering chemicals known. A white, odorless powder usually taken orally, its effects are highly variable and begin within one hour and generally last 8-12 hours, gradually tapering off. It has been used experimentally in the treatment of alcoholics and psychiatric patients. [Where it showed some success.] It significantly alters perception, mood, and psychological processes, and can impair motor coordination and skills. During the 1950s and early 1960s, LSD experimentation was legally conducted by psychiatrists and others in the health and mental health professions. Sometimes dramatic, unpleasant psychological reactions occur, including panic, great confusion, and anxiety. Strongly affected by SET and SETTING. Classification: hallucinogens. Slang names: acid, sugar. See also appendix B. (RIS 27:211-52 entries) -- Research Issues 26, Guide to Drug Abuse Research Terminology, available from NIDA or the GPO, page 54. ..... Common Drug Slang Terms (NB: many of these refer to the carrier, ie, "Blotter" or "Sugar Cubes". Often the local names will refer to patterns printed on the blotter, eg, "Blue unicorn".): Acid, 'Cid, Sid, Bart Simpsons, Barrels, Tabs, Blotter, Heavenly blue, "L", Liquid, Liquid A, Lucy in the sky with diamonds, Microdots, Mind detergent, Orange cubes, Orange micro, Owsley, Hits, Paper acid, Sacrament, Sandoz, Sugar, Sugar lumps, Sunshine, Tabs, Ticket, Twenty-five, Wedding bells, Windowpane, etc. ..... from the data sheet accompanying product: (see also Physician's Desk Reference from mid-60's) Delysid (LSD 25) D-lysergic acid diethylamide tartrate Sugar-coated tablets containing 0.025 mg. (25 ug.) Ampoules of 1 ml. containing 0.1 mg. (100 ug.) for oral administration. The solution may also be injected s.c. or i.v. The effect is identical with that of oral administration but sets in more rapidly. PROPERTIES The administration of very small doses of Delysid (1/2-2 ug./kg. body weight) results in transitory distur- bances of affect, hallucinations, depersonalization, reliv- ing of repressed memories, and mild neuro-vegetative symp- toms. The effect sets in after 30 to 90 minutes and gen- erally lasts 5 to 12 hours. However, intermittent distur- bances of affect may occasionally persist for several days. METHOD OF ADMINISTRATION For oral administration the contents of 1 ampoule of Delysid are diluted with distilled water, a 1% solution of tartaric acid or halogen-free tap water. The absorption of the solution is somewhat more rapid and more constant that that of the tablets. Ampoules which have not been opened, which have been protected against light and stored in a cool place are stable for an unlimited period. Ampoules which have been opened or diluted solutions retain their effectiveness for 1 to 2 days, if stored in a refrigerator. INDICATIONS AND DOSAGE a) Analytical psychotherapy, to elicit release of repressed material and provide mental relaxation, par- ticularly in anxiety states and obsessional neuroses. The initial dose is 25 ug. (1/4 of an ampoule or 1 tablet). This dose is increased at each treatment by 25 ug. until the optimum dose (usually between 50 and 200 ug.) is found. The individual treatments are best given at intervals of one week. b) Experimental studies on the nature of psychoses: By taking Delysid himself, the psychiatrist is able to gain an insight in the world of ideas and sensations of mental patients. Delysid can also be used to induced model psychoses of short duration in normal subjects, this facilitating studies on the pathogenesis of mental disease. In normal subjects, doses of 25 to 75 ug. are generally sufficient to produce a hallucinatory psychosis (on an average 1 ug./kg. body weight). In certain forms of psychosis and in chronic alcoholism, higher doses are necessary (2 to 4 ug./kg. body weight). PRECAUTIONS Pathological mental conditions may be intensified by Delysid. Particular caution is necessary in subjects with a suicidal tendency and in those cases where a psychotic development appears imminent. The psycho-affective lability and the tendency to commit impulsive acts may occasionally last for some days. Delysid should only be administered under strict medi- cal supervision. The supervision should not be discontinued until the effects of the drug have completely worn off. ANTIDOTE The mental effects of Delysid can be rapidly reversed by the i.m. administration of 50 mg. chlorpromazine. [Erowid Note: Research by Aghajanian found that chlorpromazine did not reverse LSD effects, but added its own new effects to the LSD effects. The book Chemical Warfare states: "In a controlled study of its effects on scopolamine delirium, however, George [Aghajanian] found not only that it didn't work, but it made things worse. It deepened the stupor and delayed recovery. Thorazine may have become popular, despite a lack of true antidotal effectiveness, because it provided a temporary respite to harried ER doctors." [Ketchum 2006, pg 121] "[Aghajanian] George did find that it raised NF scores temporarily, but did not shorten the overall duration of impairment. Surprisingly, Thorazine sometimes even delayed the final return of performance scores to baseline." [Ketchum 2006, pg 130] There is no known way to "reverse" the effects of any psychedelic although sedatives such as xanax or valium can help reduce some of the uncomfortable related anxiety and are widely used in hospital settings for 'bad trips'.] SANDOZ LTD., BASLE, SWITZERLAND 9792*-Z1540 e.-sp./d.-fr. Printed in Switzerland. ..... ~From: An Introduction to Pharmacology 3rd edition, JJ Lewis, 1964 (p 385) Peripheral Actions These include an oxytocic action and constriction of the blood vessels of isolated vascular beds. In intact animals LSD causes a fall in blood pressure, but its adrenergic blocking potency is low. LSD causes mydriasis in man and other species. It also causes hyperglycaemia and mydriasis, has a hyperthermic action and causes piloerection. These effects are sympathetic in nature and are abolished by ganglion blocking or adrenergic blocking agents. Parasympathetic effects include salivation, lachyrmation, vomiting, hypotension, and brachycardia. Low doses stimulate respiration but larger doses depress it. (NB: mydriasis = pupillary dilation) ..... Hofmann thought the diethylamide version of the lysergic acid molecule might be a respiratory stimulant... (see _Problem Child_ by Hofmann) ..... The "speedy" quality of unadulterated LSD is due to the pharmacological actions of LSD itself, and not necessarily due to decomposition or impurities. LSD typically causes early adrenergic effects such as sweating, nervousness, jaw grinding and insomnia which are easily confused with the side effects of amphetamine. ***** ADDICTION POTENTIAL: Zero physical addiction potential. Not something that makes you want to do it again immediately. Essentially zero psychological addiction potential. Rarely people use it to escape in a negative way or as part of "polydrug abuse" behavior or pattern of behavior. Usually in this case other drugs are causing more harm, and the fundamental problem is a personal difficulty; the escapism/distraction is a symptom. ***** ADULTERANTS: Several problems are associated with street drugs: their unknown purity and their unknown strength. Because of its extreme cheapness and potency, the purity of LSD in blotter form is not an issue: either it's lsd or untreated paper. The purity of powders, pills, and liquids cannot be assumed as safe. With regards to uncertain strength, the strength of hits these days is low, 100 micrograms or so. One should be careful and assume that the smallest square in a tiling of a sheet is a dose, even if a printed pattern covers several. An experienced person could judge the strength of a dose, and if it is assumed all doses on a sheet have been processed equivalently, those doses would be calibrated for others, much like anything else. ..... "There is a great deal of superstition regarding purification of psychedelics. Actually, any impurities which may be present as a result of synthetic procedures will almost certainly be without any effect on the trip. If there are 200 micrograms of LSD in a tablet, there could only be 200 mics of impurities present even if the LSD was originally only 50% pure (assuming nothing else has been added), and few compounds will produce a significant effect until a hundred to a thousand times this amount has been ingested. Even mescaline, which has a rather specific psychedelic effect, requires about a thousand thimes this amount." ..... Note that: 1) on a piece of paper, vs. a tablet, you can't even add significant amounts of adulterants 2) adulterants would cost, whereas blank paper will rip someone off just as well. LSD itself has some "body-kinks" on some people some times. Nausea is one of them. its usually mild and transient. It also has speedlike (ie, adrenergic stimulation) effects, etc. (It is common for the uninformed to harbor fears (e.g., about adulterants) instilled by ignorance and the current hysteria/propoganda. That's why this FAQ exists.) ..... [Referring to strychnine] 15 mg has been fatal, but a more typical fatal dose is on the order of 50 mg. [Another post indicates 25 mg. as the LD50] 1 mg of strychnine orally probably has no observable pharmacological effects in a typical adult. [1 mg being ten times the effective dose of LSD, by the way.] ~From: Handbook of Poisoning, 10th ed, R.H. Dreisbach, M.D., PhD, Lange Med. Pub. Co. Los Altos, Ca.: strychnine is lethal in 15-30 mg amounts to adult humans. (Pure nicotine is fatal at 40 mg./person; cyanide salts are fatal at about 100 mg./person) Strychnine causes death by respitory failure, via increased spinal reflex excitability. Actually, I think the fact that PharmChem analyzed something on the order of 2,000 LSD samples between 1972 and 1979 and never found one with strychnine in it would be better. I'm going over all their data with a toothpick and I'll get back to you on exactly what I find. It looks like the percent of LSD with strychnine in it is, however, at least under .05%. More a little later. ..... According to Alexander Shulgin the definitive answer is that strychnine is neither used in the synthesis, produced by the synthesis, or a possible contaminant of the synthesis. But just look at the structures of strychnine vs Lysergic acid/LSD/etc and you should be able to understand that readily. ..... Summary of Street Drug Results - 1973: "Of 189 samples of LSD quantitatively analyzed, the average dose was 67.25 ug LSD. Of the 32 samples of alleged mescaline actually containing mescaline, [...stuff about mescaline and mushrooms deleted...] It is interesting to note the low incidence of deception among the less sought after psychotomimetics LSD and PCP." Most likely "good" acid is N-acetyl-LSD (ALD-52) [according to _Psychedelic Encyclopedia_ it produces a smoother trip and is somewhat commonly found in analysis -- references to the latter were provided]. while "speedy" acid is LSD-25. You might want to inform her that those "speedy" effects are also commonly reported side effects of legal drugs which effect the 5-HT neurotransmitter system. And ditto on the potency issue -- you'd need mg quantities of strychnine to feel anything. And what you would feel (according to descriptions I've read) does not match descriptions of LSD "speed" effects. Most significantly because strychnine muscular effects tend to fade in & out, while LSD "speed" effects are typically reported as being consistent -- and there are other qualitative differences. "actual experience"? ... no one here is likely to post descriptions of that over the net, even in e-mail... I'm *quite* sure that some people could though... > Well, hypothetically speaking, I bought some from her friends, and I could > probably surrender half a hit or a whole one, maybe, in the interest of > science. Does anyone have facilities to perform a REAL (hypothetical) > analysis of blotter to find out exactly what's in it? Its been done.... > > Schnoll SH Vogel WH > > Analysis of "street drugs". > > N Engl J Med (1971 Apr 8) 284(14):791 This reference sucks. > > Brown JK Shapazian L Griffin GD > > A rapid screening procedure for some "street drugs" by thin-layer > > chromatography. > > J Chromatogr (1972 Jan 19) 64(1):129-33 Nope. There's a LA County analysis of street drugs I've got (Clin Tox ~1984 I think) that reports LSD as being >96% pure or blank (If I remember correctly) -- the rest most likely is substitutes, but it wasn't reported in the analysis. ..... This is the PharmChem analysis of LSD from 1972 (vol 1, no 1) up to the time that the DEA no longer allowed them to make quantitative measurements (1974- vol 3, no 2 included). NOTE: NO STRYCHNINE! also note that PharmChem found a sample of Shrooms contaminated with Strychnine in 1972 (vol 1, no 7), and I would think it safe to assume that they also checked LSD for Strychnine. ***** BAD TRIPS: A person on LSD who becomes depressed, agitated, or confused may experience these feelings in an overwhelming manner that grows on itself. The best solution is to remove disturbing influences, get to a safe, comforting environment, and reassure the tripper that things are alright. It may comfort those who fear that they are losing their minds to be reminded that it will end in several hours. Authorities are fond of administering injections of anti-psychotic drugs. Recovery in the presence of authorities, in hospitals or police stations, is not pleasant. Sedatives or tranquilizers such as Valium may help reduce panic and anxiety, but the best solution is calm talking. Some claim that niacin (an over the counter vitamin supplement) can abort a trip, but this may be due to a placebo effect (niacin produces a flushing effect). Remember that odd bodily sensations are normal and not harmful. ..... "The distinction between psycholytic and psychedelic doses of LSD is used in many scientific publications but seems to be ignored by popularizers who either preach the "LSD utopia" or warn of the "decline of the West." A psycholitic does, generally 75 or 100 - or at most 200 - micrograms, causes a rush of thoughts, a lot of free association, some visualization (hallucination) and abreaction (memories so vivid that one seems to relive the experience). A psychedelic dose, around 500 micrograms, produces total but temporary breakdown of usual ways of perceiving self and world and (usually) some form of "peak experience" or mystic transcendence of ego. "Bad trips" usually occur only on psychedelic doses." ..... The best review of this question is Rick Strassman's "Adverse Reactions to Psychedelic Drugs: a Review of the Literature" in _J. Nerv and Mental Disease_ 172(10):577-595. He writes: The most common adverse reaction is a temporary (less than 24 hours) episode of panic --the "bad trip". Symptoms include frightening illusions/ hallucinations (usually visual and/or auditory); overwhelming anxiety to the point of panic; aggression with possible violent acting-out behavior; depression with suicidcal ideations, gestures, or attempts; confusion; and fearfulness to the point of paranoid delusions. Reactions that are prolonged (days to months) and/or require hospitalization are often referred to as "LSD psychosis," and include a heterogenous population and group of symptoms. Although there are no hard and fast rules, some trends have been noted in these patients. There is a tendency for people with poorer premorbid adjusment, a history of psychiatric illness and/or treatment, a greater number of exposure to psychedelic drugs (and correlatively, a great average total cumulative dosage taken over time), drug-taking in an unsupervised setting, a history of polydrug abuse, and self-therapeutic and/or peer-pressure-submission motive for drug use, to suffer these consequences. In spite of the impressive degree of prior problems noted in many of these patients, there are occasional reports of severe and prolonged reactions occuring in basically well adjusted individuals. In the same vein, there are many instance of faily poorly adapted individuals who suffer _no_ ill effects from repeated psychedelic drug use. In fact, it has been hypothesized that some schizophrenics do not suffer adverse reactions because of their familiarity with such acute altered states. Another possibility is that there individuals may be "protected" by possible "down- regulation" of the receptors for LSD, bu the (over-)production of some endogenous compound. _Individual_ prediction of adverse reactions, therefore, is quite difficult... ..... Major "functional" psychosis vs. "LSD psychosis" A diagnostic issue dealth with explicitly in only a few papers is that of LSD-precipitated major functional illnesses, e.g. affective disorders or schizophrenia. In other words, many of these so called LSD psychoses could be other illnesses that were triggered by the stress of a traumatic psychedelic drug experience. Some of the same methodological issues described earlier affect these studies, but they are, on the averagem better controlled, with more family and past psychiatric history available for comparison. Hensala et al. compared LSD-using and non-LSD-using psychiatric inpatients. They found that this group of patients was generally of a younger age and contained more characteristically disordered individuals than the non- LSD-using group. Patients with specific diagnoses with or without LSD histories were not compared. Based on their observations, they concluded that LSD was basically just another drug of abuse in a population of frequently hospitalized individuals in the San Francisco area, and that it was unlikely that psychedelic use could be deemed etiological in the development of their psychiatric disorders. Roy, Breakey et al., and Vardy and Kay have attempted to relate LSD use to the onset and revelopment of a schizophrenia-like syndrome. A few comments regarding this conceptual framework seem in order, before their findings are discussed. The major factor here is that of choosing schizophrenia, or in the Vardy and Kay study, schizophreniform disorders, as the comparison group. There is an implication here that LSD psychoses are comparable, phenomenologically, to schizophrenia-like disorders, and that LSD can "cause" the development of such disorders. The multiplicity of symptoms and syndromes described in the "adverse reaction" literature should make it clear that LSD can cause a number of reactions that can last for any amount of time--from minutes to, possibly, years. I believe what is being studied here is the question of the potential role of LSD in accelerating or precipitating the onset of an illness that was "programmed" to develop ultimately in a particular individual--in a manner comparable to the major physical or emotional stress that often precipitates a bona fide myocardial infarction in an individual with advanced coronary atheresclerosis. The stress did not _cause_ the heart disease; it was only the stimulus that accelerated the inexorable process to manifest illness. In looking at the relevant studies, Breakey et al. found that schizophrenics who "used drugs" had an earlier onset of symptoms and hospitalization than non-drug-using schizophrenics, and had possibly better premorbid personal- ities than non-drug using patients (although Vardy and KAy have challenged this analysis of Breakey's data). Bowers compared 12 first-admission patients with psychosis related to LSD use, requiring hospitalization and phenothiazines, to 26 patients hospital- ized and treated with phenothiazines with no history of drug use. Six of these controls had been previously hospitalized. Drug-induced psychotic patients were found to have better premorbib histories and prognostic indicators than the nondrug groups. There was no difference in rates of family history of psychiatric illness. However, several issues flaw this study. One is the poly-drug abusing nature of the "LSD-induced" psychotic patients, compared to the controls. The role of LSD, therefore, in causing or precipitating these symptomatic disorders, is open to dispute. The other is the lack of an adequate comparison control group, i.e. the controls were specified only as "psychotic," and did not necessarily match the LSD group in either symptoms or diagnostic classification. A follow-up study of the patients occured between 2 and 6 years later. One half did well and one half did poorly, although the lack of a control group for a follow-up in a similarly symptomatic control group makes interpretation of the data difficult. Roy, in a somewhat different design, compared chronic schizophrenic patients (diagnosed according to DSM-III criteria) who had used LSD within the week preceding hospitalization, and found no difference in age of symptom onset or hospitalization compared to patients without a history of illicit drug use. Vardy and Kay, in an elegant study with a 3- and 5- year follow-up period, demonstrated that patients hospitalized for a schizophrenic picture that developed within two weeks of LSD use (patients with other diagnoses were explicitly excluded form comparisons with non-drug-using schizophrenics) were "fundamentally similar to schizophrenics in geneology, phenomenology, and course of illness (165, p. 877). Pre- morbid adjustment, age of onset of symptoms and hospitalization, family history of psychosis or suicide, and most cognitive features were also equal between groups. Family histories of alcohol abuse were markedly great in the LSD group. I believe these data, taken as a whole, limited as they are in terms of comparing subgroups (i.e. LSD-using vs. non-LSD-using) of "schizophrenia- like" disorders, point towar, at most, a possible precipitory role in the development of these disorders, in a non specific and not etiologically related manner. ***** MYTHS: LSD does not form "crystals" that reside in the body to be "dislodged" later, causing flashbacks. LSD is a crystalline solid (though it is unlikely that one would ever have enough to be visible to the naked eye) but it is easily water soluble, thus cannot form bodily deposits. Furthermore, it is metabolized and excreted in hours. The bogus "loosened crystal" description in not necessary to explain flashbacks, which are psychological phenomena (see FLASHBACKS). LSD does not cause chromosome damage. In Science 30 April 1972, Volume 172 Number 3982 p. 431-440 there was an article by Norman I. Dishotsky, William D. Loughman, Robert E. Mogar and Wendell R. Lipscomb titled "LSD and Genetic Damage - Is LSD chromosome damaging, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic?". They reviewed 68 studies and case reports published 1967-1972, concluding "From our own work and from a review of literature, we believe that pure LSD ingested in moderate doses does not damage chromosomes in vivo, does not cause detectable genetic damage, and is not a teratogen or carcinogen in man." Well, there's the study by Sidney Cohen which was cited here recently, Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 130, 1960. The following is from Jay Stevens' Storming Heaven: "Cohen surveyed a sample of five thousand individuals who had taken LSD twenty-five thousand times. He found and average of 1.8 psychotic episodes per thousand ingestions, 1.2 attempted suicides, and 0.4 completed suicides. 'Considering the enormous scope of the psychic responses it induces,' he concluded, 'LSD is an astonishingly safe drug.'" Some urban legends: I've heard two "stories" about people blinding themselves on "drugs". One was revealed as a hoax by the person who perpetrated it (apparently it was intended to "illustrate" the dangers of LSD), another is trotted out by anti-drug speakers at high schools: 1) Seven people on LSD stared at the sun and lost 90% of their reading vision. [Ed: See the file Erowid.org/chemicals/lsd/lsd_myth6.shtml for more detailed information on the spread and mutation of the myth.] 2) A teenager arrested while on LSD plucked out his eyeballs in his jail cell, and felt no pain. While these are bogus, the drug has powerful effects on the mind and the consumer should be aware of the hazards, and act appropriately. ..... There is an occasionally circulated fake warning from some police department about LSD-laced "tattoos" or stickers (the "blue star tattoo" story) being given to children. This probably originated with some hick cop or ignorant and panicky parent not understanding some children-cartoon (eg, mickey mouse in sorcerer's garb) printed on a sheet of blotter. ..... See also myths about testing in DRUG TESTING ***** DANGERS: Purely psychological hazards, not harmful to body. May release latent psychosis or exacerbate depression, leading to irrational behavior. There is also a danger of foolish or incautious behavior, e.g, misjudging distances or thinking one can fly. Physical overdose is not a hazard, though one may easily ingest more than one may be able to handle psychologically. ..... Because the "LSD psychosis" is not distinguishable from non-drug- induced psychosis, we have reasonable evidence to conclude that LSD was not the sole cause of psychosis. Instead, it would seem that the drug brought on the problems in vulnerable individuals. Interestingly, the rate of parental alcoholism was found to be much higher in LSD patients than in other patients or in the general population by one study (Vardy and Kay, Arch-Gen-Psych, 1983 40(8): 877-83). ..... Lethal (toxic) doses of LSD are conservatively several tens of thousands of times as much as a normal dose, making it (in the toxic sense) one of the safest drugs known. See section on Pharmacology for description of bodily side-effects. The LD50 for psilocybin (active ingredient in mushrooms) is 275 mg/kg i.v. in mice. Of course, it would take lots more p.o. to kill someone. The reported LD50 values for LSD are 46, 16.5, 0.3 mg/kg I.V. for mice, rats, and rabbits, respectively. Again, it's hard to accurately translate these numbers to oral values. Note that an average human dose is 0.001 mg/kg, ie, 1 microgram/kg, ie, 1 part per billion by weight. ..... Never take any drugs while pregnant. Best to be prudent. ***** FLASHBACKS: Quoted without permission from 'Licit and Illicit Drugs,' written by Edward M. Brecher and the editors of Consumer Reports. ISBN: 0-316-15340-0 A simple explanation of LSD flashbacks, and of their changed character after 1967, is available. According to this theory, almost everybody suffers flashbacks with or without LSD. Any intense emotional experience--the death of a loved one, the moment of discovery that one is in love, the moment of an automobile smashup or of a narrow escape from a smashup--may subsequently and unexpectedly return vividly to consciousness weeks or months later. Since the LSD trip is often an intense emotional experience, it is hardly surprising that it may similarly "flash back." "Post-traumatic stress disorder has been commonly associated with war veterans, but it also affects victims of disasters and violence... Experts estimate that 1% of the population suffers from the disorder." ---LA Times, Feb 18 1992, p A3, "Journey For Better Life Hell For Some Women." ..... Can smoking marijuana induce a flashback? Also are you more likely to suffer flashbacks from having a bad trip? Apparently yes and yes. The following is reproduced without permission from Lester Grinspoon and James B. Bakalar, "Psychedelic Drugs Reconsidered," Basic Books, Inc. New York, 1979. pp. 159-163. I highly recommend this book, and if you find it please buy me one too. I typed this in a while ago and didn't type in the references at the time (slap!). If you want them i'll see what i can do. Typos are mine. - - - - - - - ... Studies of flashbacks are hard to evaluate because the term has been used so loosely and variably. On the broadest definition, it means the transitory recurrence of emotions and perceptions originally experienced while under the influence of a psychedelic drug. It can last seconds or hours; it can mimic any of the myriad aspects of a trip; and it can be blissful, interesting, annoying, or frightening. Most flashbacks are episodes of visual distortion, time distortion, physical symptoms, loss of ego boundaries, or relived intense emotion lasting a few seconds to a few minutes. Ordinarily they are only slightly disturbing, especially since the drug user usually recognizes them for what they are; they may even be regarded lightheartedly as "free trips." Occasionally they last longer, and in a small minority of cases they turn into repeated frightening images or thoughts. They usually decrease quickly in number and intensity with time, and rarely occur more than a few months after the original trip. A typical minor and pleasant flashback is the following: -- ... Frequently afterward there is a momentary "opening" ("flash" would be too spastic a word) when for maybe a couple of seconds an area one is looking at casually, and indeed unthinkingly, suddenly takes on the intense vividness, composition, and significance of things seen while in the psychedelic condition. This "scene" is nearly always a small field of vision -- sometimes a patch of grass, a spray of twigs, even a piece of newspaper in the street or the remains of a meal on a plate (Cohen 1970, pp. 114-115) -- Here are two more troublesome examples: -- For about a week I couldn't walk through the lobby of A-entry at the dorm without getting really scared, because of the goblin I saw there when I was tripping. (Pope 1971, p. 93) -- A man in his late twenties came to the admitting office in a state of panic. Althought he had not taken any drug in approximately 2 moths he was beginning to re-experience some of the illusory phenomena, perceptual distortions, and the feeling of union with the things areound him that had previously occurred only under the influence of LSD. In addition, his wife had told him that he was beginning to "talk crazy," and he had become frightened ... He was concerned lest LSD have some permanent effect on him. He wished reassurance so that he could take it again. His symptoms have subsided but tend to reappear in anxiety-provoking situations. (Frosch et al. 1965, p. 1237) -- Flashbacks are most likely to occur under emotional stress or at a time of altered ego functioning; they are often induced by conditions like fatigue, drunkenness, marihuana intoxication, and even meditative states. Falling asleep is one of those times of consciousness change and diminished ego control; an increase in the hypnagogic imagery common at the edge of sleep often follows psychedelic drug use and can be regarded as a kind of flashback. Dreams too may take on the vividness, intensity, and perceptual peculiarities of drug trips; this spontaneous recurrence of psychedelic experience in sleep (often very pleasant) has been called the high dream (Tart 1972). Marihuana smoking is probably the most common single source of flashbacks. Many people become more sensitive to the psychedelic qualities of marihuana after using more powerful drugs, and some have flashbacks only when smoking marihuana (Weil 1970). In one study frequency of marihuana use was found to be the only factor related to drugs that was correlated with number of psychedelic flashbacks (Stanton et al. 1976). How common flashbacks are said to be depeds on how they are defined. By the broad definition we have been using, they occur very often; probably a quarter or more of all psychedelic drug users have experienced them. A questionanaire survey of 2,256 soldiers (Stanton and Bardoni 1972), leaving the definition to the respondents, revealed that 23 percent of the men who used LSD had flashbacks. In a 1972 survey of 235 LSD users, Murray P. Naditch and Sheridan Fenwick found that 28 percent had flashbacks. Eleven percent of this group (seven men in all) called them very frightening, 32 percent called them somewhat frightening, 36 percent called them pleasant, and 21 percent called them very pleasant. Sixty-four percent said that their flashbacks did not disrupt their lives in any way; 16 percent (4 percent of the whole LSD-using group) had sought psychiatric help for them (Naditch and Fenwick 1977). In a study of 247 subjects who had taken LSD in psychotherapy, William H. McGlothlin and David O. Arnold found 36 cases of flashbacks, only one of which was seriously disturbing (McGlothlin and Arnold 1971). McGlothlin, defining flashbacks narrowly for clinical purposes as "repeated intrusions of frightening images in spite of volitional efforts to avoid them" (McGlothlin 1974b, p. 291), estimates that 5 percent of habitual psychedelic users have experienced them. There are few studies on the question of who is most susceptible. In 1974, R. E. Matefy and R. Krall compared psychedelic drug users who had flashbacks with those who did not, and found no significant differences in their biographies or on personality tests. The main causes of flashbacks were stress and anxiety. About 35 percent found them more or less pleasant, and the same proportion thought they could control them. Most accepted them as an inevitable part of their lives as members of the psychedelic fraternity and did not want help from psychiatry (Matefy and Krall 1974). Naditch and Fenwick found that the number of flashbacks, both pleasant and unpleasant, was highly correlated with the number and intensity of bad trips and the use of psychedelic drugs as self-prescribed psychotherapy. Those who enjoyed flashbacks and those who were frightened by them did not differ significantly on tests of ego functioning. A case seen in an outpatient setting in the late sixties illustrates the kind of set and setting that may create flashback problems. PQ was a thirty-six-year-old single man who entered therapy because of depression and anxiety. He was a heavy drinker who was passive, slovenly, and spent most of his time in bed. Just before taking to alcohol and his bed he had failed in an attempt to parlay a gift from his wealthy father into a fortune on the stock market. Despite a remarkable incapacity for insight, during a year in psychotherapy he managed to give up alcohol and start a promising business. But his anxiety continued, and in order to allay it he had to keep himself very busy wheeling and dealing. Imitating his father, a successful self-made man who had married a woman twenty years younger than himself, PQ dated only women under the age of nineteen. Being attractive to young women was so imporant to him that much of his time was spent in the company of teenagers. During business hours he would wear a conservative three-piece suit and drive a new sedan, but when he was with his young friends he would wear a leather jacket and drive a motorcycle. Anxiety and fears of inadequacy dominated both of these lives. Several months after therapy began, during a weekend in a small resort town, his young friends decided to take LSD, and he felt obliged to dissemble his fears and join them; it was his first and only trip. He felt a panic he had never known before; he thought that he was losing his mind and going "out of control." His friends were so concerned thet they took him to a small hospital, where he was given chlorpromazine and after six hours released in their care. The next day he had a flashback that lasted one or two hours and was almost as frightening as the original experience. Flashbacks continued for six months, their frequency, duration, and severity eventually diminishing to the point where it was difficult for him to determine whether they were related to the LSD trip or merely an intensification of his usual anxiety. In fact, the patient described the flashbacks as being like very much enhanced anxiety episodes. Even several years after this experience, when he became very anxious, he was reminded of the trip and these flashbacks. He denied that these experiences had any perceptual or cognitive aspect; both during the LSD trip and later, the only symptom was panic. There is no question that the nature of his trip was influenced by the unfortunate set and setting. It is a matter of speculation what part his underlying chronic anxiety played in the development and form of the flashback phenomena. Several explanations for flashbacks have been proposed. One is that the drug has lowered the threshold for imagery and fantasy and made them less subject to voluntary control; in another version of this explanation, flashbacks are caused by a heightened attention to certain aspects of immediate sensory experience suggested by drug trips and reinforced by the community of drug users. Something more seems to be needed to account for repeated fearful relivings of sequences from past drug trips, and these have been explained as similar to traumatic neuroses precipitated by fright: disturbing unconscious material has risen to consciousness during the drug trip and can be neither accepted nor repressed. For example, D. F. Saidel and R. Babineau (1976) have reported a case of recurrent flashbacks -- three years of blurring images and auditory distortions, with some anxiety and confusion -- which they regard as a neurosis founded on the patient's problems with his career and his relationship to his mother. (See also Horowitz 1969; Shick and Smith 1970; Heaton 1975.) Another explanation treats the flashback as an example of recall associated with a particular level of arousal. (Fischer 1971). In this conception the memory of an experience is best retrieved when the rate of mental data-processing is the same as it was during the original experience -- in other words, when the state of consciousness in similar. Therefore, psychedelic experiences are likely to be recalled and relived when the ego's sorting and control of sensory information is disturbed by drugs, stress, or the state of half-sleep. For a critique of flashback studies, see Stanton et al. 1976 - - - - - - - ***** INSOMNIA: Insomnia occurs frequently after the trip. A mild, over-the-counter sleeping aid can help, and these antihistamines do not produce adverse interactions. Also, some people like to consume a small amount of alcoholic beverage to "smooth the jitteries". The usual precautions about sleeping aids if alcohol has been consumed apply of course. ***** TOLERANCE: Acquired rapidly, within 3 days. Tolerance dissipates equally rapidly, without withdrawal, craving, or symptoms of addiction. Cross-tolerance can and is developed between other indole hallucinogens, eg, DMT, LSD and Psilocybin. ***** BOTANY: Lysergic compounds appear in ergot, a fungal parasite of cereal grains; morning glory and hawaiian baby wood rose seeds; psychedelic tryptamines also occur in psilocybe mushrooms, in some south american trees and the poison glands of the cane toad. (Mescaline is not in this chemical family). LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) itself is not found in plants, however its close chemical cousin lysergic acid amide is. ..... "Indole Alkaloids In Plant Hallucinogens" Richard Evans Schultes, PhD. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs Vol.8(No.1) Jan-Mar 1976 "The main constituent of the seeds of Rivea corymbosa is ergine or d-lysergic acid amide. Minor alkaloids present are the related d-isolysergic acid amide (isoergine), chanoclavine, elymoclavine and lysergol. The seeds of Ipomoea violacea have a similar composition, but instead of lysergol, they have ergometrine (ergonovine). Later, very minor amounts of two alkaloids ergometrinine and penniclavine - were found in I. violacea by chromatography. the total alkaloid content of the seeds of Ipomoea viloacea is approximately five times as great as that of the seeds of Rivea corymbosa: 0.06% in the former; 0.012% in the latter. This difference in the alkaloid content explains why Indians employ smaller doses of seeds of the Ipomoea than of the Rivea. "Ethnopharmacology and Taxonomy of Mexican Psychodysleptic Plants" Jose Luis Diaz M.D. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs Vol. 11(1-2) Jan-Jun 1979 Seeds of various Morning Glories contain Ergolines: ergine,isoergine,ergonovine Glucosides: turbicoryn [apparently in Rivea corymbosa only] called Tlitlitzen (Aztec word for "The Divine Black One") to the Aztecs, Black is a "hot" color, a property of psychotropics associated with light ..... "The Botanical and Chemical Distribution of Hallucinogens" Richard Evans Schultes, PhD. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs Vol.9(No.3) Jul-Sep 1977 "I. violacea, often referred to by it's synonyms I. rubro-caerulea and I. tricolor, is represented in horticulture by a number of "varieties," such as: Heavenly Blue, Pearly Gates, Flying Saucers, Wedding Bells, Summer Skies, and Blue Stars - all of which contain the hallucinogenic ergot alkaloids." ..... "Burger's Medicinal Chemistry" Fourth Edition, Volume III Chapter: "Hallucinogens" Alexander Shulgin Composition, % of total alkaloids present ========================================= Compound R. corymbosa I. violacea =============== ================ ====================== Ergine (LA-111) 54, 48 58, 10-16, 5-10 Isoergine 17, 35 8, 18-26, 9-17 Ergometrine 8 Elymoclavine 4 4 Chanoclavine 4 4 Lysergol 4 Total Alkaloids .012, .04 .06, .04-.08, .02-.04 (% of dry weight of seeds) ***** ANTHROPOLOGY: _The Road to Eleusius_ by Hofmann, Wasson, and Ruck. Summary: A secret religion existed for 2,000 years in Greece (until the christians displaced it around 400 AD). The initiation was open to anyone who spoke Greek and hadn't committed murder, once in their life. After 6 month long preparatory rituals, members walked to Eleusius whereupon they underwent secret rituals. The rituals remained secret until the 1970's. Wasson, an ethnomycological scholar and former banker (and the first white to trip on shrooms with the mexican indians) proposed the following explanation of the Eleusian mysteries to Hofmann, an ergot-alkaloid expert chemist, and Ruck, a greek scholar: The Secret of the ritual involved the personal visions induced by drinking the grain decoction administered to the initiates. The domestication of grains permitted the development of greek civilization; it also brought ergot fungus (of St. Anthony's fire infamy). The thin book contains their argument for the use of the ergot fungus in Eleusian rites, Wasson providing some background on the use of mushrooms and grains and their role in the culture; Hofmann on the psychoactivity of ergot strains; and Ruck on the mythological and cultural backround of the sect. Evidence includes: Hofmann dosed himself with large (ergot-derived) doses of obstetric compounds to assay their hallucinogenic potential, and found them to possess such activity. The Eleusian temple site still remains, but there is no room to view theatric performances, just rows of tripping initiates, further supporting their argument. An interesting read, and its neat to think that the culture that more or less lead to the western industrial one had psychedelic rites. (Various greek prominant figures attended the rituals, including Plato). ..... IPOMOEA PURPUREA: A NATURALLY OCCURRING PSYCHEDELIC Charles Savage, Willis W. Harman and James Fadiman >From "Altered States of Consciousness, A Book of Readings" edited by Charles Tart BF311.T28 Of the naturally occurring plant alkaloids used in ancient and modern religious rites and divination one of the least studied is ololiuqui. The earliest known description of its use is by Hernandez, the King of Spain's personal physician, who spent a number of years in Mexico studying the medicinal plants of the Indians and "accurately illustrated ololiuqui as a morning glory in his work which was not published until 1651" (Schultes, 1960). In his words, "When a person takes ololiuqui, in a short time he loses clear reasoning because of the strength of the seed, and he believes he is in communion with the devil" (Alacon, 1945). Schultes (1941) and Wasson (1961) have reported in detail on the religious and divinatory use of two kinds of morning-glory seeds, Rivea corymbosa and Ipomoea violacea, among the Mazatec and Zapotec indians. The first of these is assumed to be the ololiuqui of the ancient Aztecs. In 1955 Osmond described personal experiments with Rivea corymbosa seeds and reported that the effects were similar to those of d-lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25). He suggested (1957) that the word psychedelic (meaning mind-manifesting) be used as a generic term for this class of substances to refer to their consciousness-expanding and psychotherapeutic function as contrasted with the hallucinogenic aspect. In 1960 Hofmann reported that he had isolated d-lysergic acid amide (LA) and d-isolysergic acid amide from the seed of both Rivea corymbosa and Ipomoea violacea. LA is very similar to LSD in its psychological and physiological manifestations but is reported to have about one twentieth the psychological effectiveness of LSD (Cerletti & Doepfner, 1958). The work of these investigators led us to a preliminary study of the psychedelic properties of species of Ipomoea which are commonly found within the continental United States. The seeds of Ipomoea purpurea, the common climbing morning glory, resemble the seeds of Ipomoea violacea and have been found to have similar psychedelic properties. Recent analysis by Taber et al. (1963) has verified that LA is present in the varieties used and is probably the primary active agent. The effects of the seeds of Ipomoea purpurea (varieties Heavenly Blue and Pearly Gates) in a total of 45 cases are summarized below. The subjects are all normally functioning adults and the majority had previous experience with LSD. The onset of effects is about half an hour after the seeds have been chewed and swallowed and they last from five to eight hours. Low Dose, 20-50 Seeds (11 Subjects) This dosage rarely produces any visual distortions, although with eyes closed there may be beginning imagery. Restlessness, evidenced by alternating periods of pacing about and lying down, may be present. There tends to be a heightened awareness of objects and of nature, and enhanced rapport with other persons. A feeling of emotional clarity and of relaxation is likely to persist for several hours after other effects are no longer noticeable. Medium Dose, 100-150 Seeds (22 Subjects) In this range the effects resemble those reported for medium-dose (75-150 micrograms) LSD experiences, including spatial distortions, visual and auditory hallucinations, intense imagery with eyes closed, synaesthesia and mood elevation. These effects, which occur mainly during the period of 1 to 4 hours after ingestion, are typically followed by a period of alert calmness which may last until the subject goes to sleep. High Dose, 200-500 Seeds (12 Subjects) In this range the first few hours may resemble the medium-dose effects described above. However, there is usually a period during which the subjective states are of a sort not describable in terms of images or distortions, states characterized by loss of ego boundaries coupled with feelings of euphoria and philosophical insight. These seem to parallel the published descriptions of experiences with high doses (200-500 micrograms) of LSD given in a supportive, therapeutic setting as reported by Sherwood et al. (1962). All the subjects who had previous experience with LSD claimed the effects of the seeds were similar to those of LSD. Transient nausea was the most commonly reported side effect, beginning about one half hour after ingestion and lasting a few minutes to several hours. Other reported side effects not commonly found with LSD were a drowsiness or torpor (possibly due to a glucoside also present in the seeds) and a coldness in the extremities suggesting that the ergine content of the seeds may be causing some vascular constriction. (If this is the case, there may be some danger of ergot poisoning resulting from excessive dosages of the seeds.) The only untoward psychic effect was a prolonged (eight hours) disassociative reaction which was terminate with chlorpromazine [Thorazine]. The possibility of prolonged adverse reactions to the psychological effects of the seeds is essentially the same as with LSD, and the same precautions should be observed (Cohen & Ditman, 1963). ..... IPOMOEA.003 7-MAY-90 Additional Notes: Ipomoea purpurea is sold as the "Heavenly Blue" variety of morning glory. "Ipomoea tricolor" is the trade name used for that variety. It is identical with the species of morning glory described above. The seeds must be chewed or ground in order to be effective. Soaking the ground seeds in water for several hours, filtering out the grounds, and then drinking only the water portion of the mixture can reduce some of the stomach-upset symptoms if such occur. Unpleasant LSD and morning glory trips can be smoothed out or even stopped by taking niacin (in the form of nicotinic acid, vitamin B-3 or "niacin"). Vitamin C has been shown to reduce the incidence of paranoia and prevent depletion of the vitamin from the adrenal glands during LSD trips. There have been reports that commercially available packets of morning glory seeds from some distributors are coated with fungicides or other chemicals to increase shelf life or discourage the practice of eating them. Seeds from plants grown in one's own garden will be safe as long as you do not spray them with insecticides. The last few notes about Niacin and Vitamin C are based on a paperback edition of Hoffer & Osmonds "The Psychedelics" It's pretty clear that the latin names of this plant are somewhat confused (which is typical). Ipomoea purpurea, Ipomoea tricolor, Ipomoea violacea and Ipomoea rubro-caerulea are all the same plant. The other variety of morning glory, "Ololiuhqui" has at least two Latin names as well: Rivea corymbosa, and Turbina corymbosa. ..... "Recreational use of Ergoline Alkaloids from Argyreia Nervosa" William E. Shawcross Journal of Psychedelic Drugs Vol. 15(4) Oct-Dec 1983 CHEMISTRY AND EFFECT OF THE SEEDS The Hawaiian baby woodrose entered the drug scene in 1965 with the publication of a paper in "Science" entitled "Ergoline Alkaloids in Tropical Wood Roses" by Hylin and Watson. The wide circulation of this journal assured thorough dissemination of the information they presented. They wrote, "The possible health and legal problems associated with the presence of similar compounds in commercially cultivated plants led us to examine the ornamental wood roses, Ipomoea tuberosa and Argyreia nervosa, both common Hawaiian crops that have assumed commerical importance as components of [the] dried tropical flower industry." Comparing the seeds of these two plants with those of the morning glory varieties Pearly Gates and Heavenly Blue, they found the following yield of alkaloids (mg of alkaloid/g of seed material): Heavenly Blue 0.813 Pearly Gates 0.423 I. tuberosa [None] A. nervosa 3.050 The seed of A. nervosa is the best plant source of ergoline alkaloids discovered; it contains approximately 3 mg of alkaloidal material per gram of seed. Approximately one-eighth of this is lysergamide. Hylin and Watson found the major alkaloidal constituents in A. nervosa seeds to be ergine (780 mcg/g of fresh seed) and isoergine and penniclavine (555 mcg). [Note: Argyreia nervosa has NO history of shamanic use as a hallucinogen] This is an excerpt from the article cited. There's no record of Argyreia being used as an hallucinogen in India, but it was used externally as some kind of skin medicine. There's been speculation that Argyreia might have been a component of "Soma", but there's no evidence for that, apparently. Because there's not a long history of human usage of Argyreia, it may be that there are glycosides not mentioned here that take effect at higher doses or might cause stomach upset, tachycardia etc. The article mentioned intestinal complaints in one or two cases at higher experimental doses. ***** CHEMISTRY: lysergic acid diethylamide _is_ lysergic acid diethylamide (or... N,N-diethyl-D-lysergamide or... 9,10-Didehydo-N,N-diethyl-6-methylergoline-8B-carboxamide). Only one stereoisomer (the d-) is psychoactive. Thus, racemic (l/d 50-50 mix) lsd shows half the potency of the dextro form. In synthesis it is possible to recover the l-form for the lysergic acid. Lysergic Acid Diethylamide is LSD rather than LAD because the German word for acid is saeure (sp). Ergot is a product of the fungus Claviceps purpurea. The bio-active ingredients of ergot are all derivatives of lysergic acid. LSD is a semisynthetic derivative of lysergic acid. Thus LSD is an "ergot"-like substance. From the Merck Index: 5505. Lysergamide. 9,10-Didehydro-6-methylergoline- 8beta-carboxamide; lysergic acid amide; ergine. C16H17N3O; mol wt 267.32. C 71.88%, H 6.41%, N 15.72%, O 5.99%. Isoln from _Rivea_corymbosa_(L.) and from _Ipomoea_tricolor_ Cav., _Convolvulaceae_: Hofmann, Tscherter, _Experientia_ 16, 414 (1964). Prepn from lysergic acid hydrazide: Ainsworth, U.S. pat. 2,756,235 (1956 to Lilly); from lysergic acid and phosgene-dimethylformamide complex: Patelli, Bernardi, U.S. pat. 3,141,887 (1964 to Farmitalia). Microbiological production: Rutschmann, Kobel, U.S. pat. 3,219,545 (1965 to Sandoz). H. CONH2 '. / / \ / \ || | || N /\\ /\ / \ / \\ / \ / CH3 || | | \ || | | H \ // \ / \// \/ | || | || HN------- Prisms from methanol. dec 242deg. [alpha](5461)(20) + 15% (c = 0.5 in pyridine). Methanesulfonate, C7H21N3O4S, prisms from methanol + acetone, dec 232deg. Note: This is a controlled substance (depressant) listed in the U.S. code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Part 1308.13 (1987). 5506. Lysergic Acid. 9,10-Didehydro-6-methylergoline- 8-carboxylic acid. C16H16N2O2; mol wt 268.32. C 71.62%, H 6.01%, N 10.44%, O 11.93%. Lysergic acid and isolyser- gic acid are the main cleavage products formed on alkaline hydrolysis of the alkaloids which are characteristic of ergot. Jacobs, Craig et al., _J._Biol._Chem._ 104, 547 (1934); 125, 289 (1938); 130, 399 (1939); 145, 487 (1942); _J._Org._Chem._ 10, 76 (1945). High-yield production by _Claviceps_paspali_: Arcamone et al., _Proc._Roy._Soc._ (London), _Ser._B_, 155, 26 (1961). total synthesis: Kornfeld et al., _J._Am._Chem._Soc._ 76, 5256 (1954); 78, 3087 (1956); M. Julia et al., _Tetrahedron_ _letters_ 1969, 1569; V.W. Armstrong et al., ibid. 1976, 4311; W. Oppolzer et al., _Helv._Chem._Acta_ 64, 478 (1981); R. Ramage et al., _Tetrahedron_ 37, Suppl. 9, 157 (1981); J. Rebek, D.F. Tai, _Tetrahedron_Letters_ 24, 859 (1983). Ste- reochemistry: Stoll et al., _Helv._Chem._Acta 37, 2039 (1954); Stenlake, _J._Chem._Soc._ 1955, 1626; Leeman, Fabbri, _Helv._ _Chim._Acta_ 42, 2696 (1959). Absolute configuration: Stad- ler, Hofmann, ibid. 45, 2005 (1962). H. COOH '. / / \ / \ || | || N /\\ /\ / \ / \\ / \ / CH3 || | | \ || | | H \ // \ / \// \/ | || | || HN------- Haxagonal scales, plates with one or two moles H20 from water, mp 240deg (dec). [alpha](D)(20) + 40deg (c = 0.5 in pyridine). Behaves as an acid and base, pKa 3.44, pKb 7.68. Moder- ately sol in pyridine. Sparingly sol in water and in neutral organic solvents; sol in NaOH, NH4OH, Na2CO3, and HCL solns. Slighly sol in dil H2SO4. Methyl ester, thin leaflets from benzene, mp 168deg. Note: This is a controlled substance (depressant) listed in the U.S. code of Federal Regulations, title 21 Part 1308.13 (1987). 5507. Lysergide. 9,10-Didehydro-N,N-diethyl-6-meth- ylergoline-8beta-carboxamide; N,N-diethyl-D-lysergamide; D- lysergic acid diethylamide; LSD; LSD-25; Lysergsaure Di- ethylamid. C20H25N3O; mol wt 323.42. C 74.27%, H 7.79%, N 12.99%, O 4.95%. Microbal formation by _Claviceps_pas- pali_ over the hydroxyethylamide; Arcamone et al., _Proc._ Roy._Soc._(London) 155B, 26 (1961). Partial synthesis: Stoll, Hofmann, _Helv._Chim._Acta_ 26, 944 (1943); 38, 421 (1955). Industrial prepn: Pioch; Garbrecht, U.S. pats. 2,736,728; 2,774,763 (both 1956 to Lilly); Patelli, Bernardi, U.S. pat. 3,141,887 (1964 to Farmitalia). Isotope-labeled LSD: Stoll et al., _Helv._Chim._Acta_ 37, 820 (1954). Toxicity data: E. Rothlin, _Ann._N.Y._Acad._Sci._ 66, 668 (1957). Review: Hof- fer, _Clin._Pharmacol._Ther._ 6, 183 (1965). Book: _The_Use_of_ LSD_in_Psychotherapy_and_Alcoholism_, H.A. Abramson, Ed. (Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis, 1967) 697 pp. / C2H5 H. CON '. / \ C2H5 / \ / \ || | || N /\\ /\ / \ / \\ / \ / CH3 || | | \ || | | H \ // \ / \// \/ | || | || HN------- Pointed prisms from benzene, mp 80-85 degs. [alpha](D)(20) + 17deg (c = 0.5 in pyridine). uv max (ethanol): 311 nm (E(1 cm)(1%) 257). LD50 in mice, rats, rabbits (mg/kg): 46, 16.5, 0.3 i.v. (Rothlin). D-Tartrate, C46H64N6O10, solvated, elongated prisoms from methanol, mp 198-200deg. [alpha](D)(20) + 30 deg. Soluble in water. Caution: This is a controlled substance (hallucinogen) listed in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21 Part 1308.11 (1987). USE: In biochemical research as an antagonist to serotonin. Has been used experimentally as adjunct in study and treat- ment of mental disorders. NOTES: Not guaranteed to be free from typos. Underlines are supposed to be italic (ie book/journal titles, etc) Alpha, beta, and deg are the greek letters and the degree symbol [alpha](D)(20) means a greek letter in  followed by a subscript and then a superscript (I don't know *WHAT* this actually is) The chemical structures are almost exactly what the Merck manual has drawn. Almost nothing was lost in the conversion to ASCII. ***** MECHANISM OF ACTION: (Note: the mechanism of action of LSD and other psychedelics is uncertain.) From a chapter titled Hallucinogens and Other Psychotomimetics: Biological Mechanisms by S.J.Watson "The current thesis of the effect of indole hallucinogens on 5-hydroxytrypamine might be stated as follows: LSD acts to preferentially inhibit serotonergic cell firing and seems to spare postsynaptic serotnergic receptors. This preference is shared by other simillar hallucinogens but in a limited fashion. Nonhallucinogenic analogs of LSD show no preference. These results suggest that there are two different steric conformation of serotonergic receptors, one of which has higher affinity for LSD than the other. In general, 5-ht is an inhibitory transmitter; thus, when its activity is decreased, the next neuron in the chain is freed from inhibition and becomes more active. Since serotnergic systems appear to be intimately involved int eh control of sensation, sleep, attention, and mood, it may be possible to explain the actions of LSD and other hallucinogens by their disinhibition of these critical systems. There is also evidence for interaction with dopaminergic systems. ..... LSD acts as a 5HT autoreceptor agonist in the raphe nucleus. These autoreceptors are typically considered to be 5HT1As. It also acts as a 5HT2 agonist, which is thought to be the main site of hallucinogenic activity. It's probably best called a a mixed 5HT2/5HT1 receptor partial agonist. I don't know of its effects on dopamine. Wouldn't be surprised if it has 'em; the systems aren't really functionally separable. The DA effects wouldn't be necessary for hallucinogenic activity, I'd bet. ..... (From Snyder, "Drugs and the Brain", 1986, Sci Am Books Inc., Reprinted w/o permission, blah, blah, blah... ) In more recent studies, Aghajanian has focuses not on the serotonin neu- rons of the raphe nuclei but on the norepinephrine neurons of the locus coeruleus. As we saw in Chapter 6, the locus coeruleus cell bodies give rise to axons that ramify all over the brain and provide the majority of the norepi- nephrine neuronal input in most brain regions. Amphetamine releases norepi- nephrine from these nerve terminals by diplacing the norepinephrine from the neurotransmitter storage vesicles. Presumably, the overall influence of amphet- amine on brain function is therefore somewhat different than what occurs when the locus coeruleus fires rapidly. The amphetamine-induced seepage of norepinephrine out of nerve terminals probably elicts a milder type of activa- tion than does the repetitive and presumably more robust ejection of norepi- nephrine that occurs with rapid firing of the locus coeruleus. Drug-induced changes in animal behavior support this conceptual model. Amphetamine elic- its behavioral activation, represented by the rats or mice running about the cage. In contrast, electrical stimulation of the locus coeruleus produces a more dramatic startle response. It is difficult to observe a rat and make inferences about what the animal is feeling, but rats in whom the locus coeruleus has been stimulated seem to go into a state of panic. They stare about, hyper-responsive to all stimuli in the enviornment, whether visual, auditory, or tactile. Rats show the same hyper-responsiveness to environmental-stimuli-- jumping abruptly at the sound of fingers snapping or in response to a puff of air in the face--when they have been treated with a psychedelic drug. And as you will recall, hyper-responsiveness to sensory stimuli of all modalities is just what one observes in humans under the influence of psychedelic drugs. At- tracted by the similarity between the behavior of rats on LSD and their reac- tion to stimulation of the locus coeruleus, Aghajanian embarked in 1980 upon a series of studies to evaluate how psychedelic drugs affect the locus coeruleus. He showed that any kind of sensory stimulation--sight, sound, smell, taste, or tactile sensation--speeds up the firing of locus coeruleus neurons in rats, and that the accelerated firing is greatly enhanced by treating the animals with LSD or mescaline. In contrast, nonpsychedelic drugs, such as amphetamines and antidepressants, fail to exert this effect. Moreover, the LSD analogue methysergide, which has no psychedelic effects in humans, is correspondingly ineffective in enhancing the reactivity of locus coeruleus neurons to sensory stimulation. Although psychedelic drugs increase the response of locus coeruleus cells to sensory stimulation, they do not cause the neurons to fire spontaneously in the absence of such stimulation. Moreover, directly applying LSD or mescaline to locus coeruleus neurons does not enhance the neurons' reponse to sensory stimulation. We must therefore conclude that the effect of psychedelic drugs on sensory stimulation is indirect--the drugs presumably interact with a different set of neurons that in turn make direct contact with the locus coeruleus. What is particularly fascinating about Aghajanian's findings is how nicely they correspond to what we know about the effects of psychedelic drugs in humans, and how readily they explain the way psychedelic drugs accentuate all our sensory perceptions. The locus coeruleus is a funneling mechanism that integrates all sensory input. Viewed in this way, the observations of Aghajanian can explain synesthesia. If the locus coeruleus lumps all types of sensory messages--from sights, sounds, tactile pressures, smells, tastes--into a generalized excitation system within the brain, one can readily appreciate that stimulation of the locus coeruleus will cause the drug user to feel that sensations are crossing the boundaries between different modalities. Aghajanian's research may also illuminate how LSD influences the user's sence of self. The greatly accelerated firing of the locus coeruleus presumably provokes a powerful, patterned release of norepinephrine from nerve terminals throughout the brain. As we discussed earlier, the consequent alerting action would be much more pronounced than what occurs with the far more gradual leaking out of norepinephrine produced when amphetamine displaces the transmitter from the storage vesicles. This extremely enhanced level of alert- ness might possibly account for the "transendent" mental state produced by psychedelic drugs. In other words, in a state of such heightened awareness, the drug user may become conscious of an "inner self" to which he or she is normally oblivious. Did that answer any of your questions? Probably not, but I thought it was interesting. P.S. Snyder has tripped before =) ..... >>Lysergic-acid diethylamide >> >>When ingested into the human body, LSD act as 5-HT (Serotonin) autoreceptor >>inhibitor, thus it is a 5-HT agonist. LSD increases the level of active >>5-HT molecules by disaffecting their autoreceptors (a safeguard type feature >>in the brain which reduces levels of certain neurotransmitter and the like). That "thus" in the first sentence should be an "and." I'm not certain what "disaffecting" should be (autoreceptors' only true loyalty is to the laws of chemistry & physics) for the second sentence to be true. The autoreceptors in question are 5-HT1As. 5-HT2s, which are not autoreceptors and which hallucinogens agonize, seem to be the more important ones for hallucinogenic activity. Hallucinogens need not affect 1As directly (some definitely don't). However, 5-HT2 receptor activation seems to facilitate presynaptic 1A function (such that, for example, hallucinogen use produces rapid 5-HT2 downregulation which, in turn, decreases 5-HT1A function). So hallucinogens would inhibit autorecetpor activity, but not necessarily directly. >LSD also has effects on 5-HT1C receptors, and its not entirely sure what the >specific receptor mechanism is -- there's also the question of why the >psychological effects seem to last much longer than the presence of the LSD >molecule. One thing that is fairly sure is that LSD shuts down the firing of >the seratonin neurons in the raphe, though. It is difficult to separate 1Cs from 2s because of their great similarity. However, hallucinogens seem to be all 2 & 1C agonists. Molecules which (like LSD) are partial 2 agonists, and which (unlike LSD) are 1c antagonists are not hallucinogenic. I believe that the effects of DOI (and probably LSD) on firing in the raphe nucleus are not blocked by 5-HT2 antagonists (like ketanserin), implying that these effects are not mediated by 5-HT2 receptors. Oddly enough, ritanserin (which antagonizes 2 and 1C) doesn't block 'em either. That's kind of mysterious to me. > 5-HT has been implicated in >>certain behaviors, notably dreaming and sleep, which explains the hallucinatory >>effect. We are in effect dreaming while completely awake and aware. >Actually, a better explanation is the increased firing of the locus coereleus >by its disinhibition due to the neurons in the raphe slowing down (since you >are inhibiting an inhibitory neuron the result is excitation...). The l.c. >has been associated with being a "sensory highway" in the brain, and has also >been associated with feelings of anxiety, and theorized that its invovled >with depression. My guess is that the hallucinations and stimulatory effects >of LSD come from potentiating the l.c., while the effect on the 5-HT neurons >in the raphe is responsible for its entheogenic effect on the mind. This isn't the full story since this decrease in firing (in the raphe) is still produced by hallucinogens even after chronic treatment with hallucinogens. Since tolerance does develop to hallucinogens, we would have expected to see it in the firing. Of course, rate of firing and amount of 5-HT released _are_ two different things. Besides, tolerance may occur via another route. ***** RELATED COMPOUNDS: Related compounds are the indole hallucinogens including DMT (dimethyl-tryptamine), DET (diethyl-), etc.; psilocybin; lysergic acid. DMT is very fast acting, lasting less than an hour. Psilocybin, found in hallucinogenic (aka magic or mexican) mushrooms, has effects similar to LSD but they work for approximately half the duration. These are all indole derivatives like the neurotransmitter serotonin, 5-hydroxy-tryptamine. "Indole" is the name of the 6-carbon ring attached to the 5-ring containing a nitrogen. The lysergic acid molecule contains an indole structure plus additional rings. LSD's two ethyl groups hanging off the amine may be replaced with other carbon chains for compounds with different durations, potencies, and effects. While LSD is semi-synthetic, DMT and psilocybin are found in nature. See the sections on BOTANY and ANTHROPOLOGY for info on related natural (plant) compounds and their uses. Also see the Psilocybe Mushroom and DMT FAQs for more information on these compounds. ***** MANUFACTURE: Forget it. Precursors (ergot alkaloids, used medicinally for migraines and ob/gyn due to their vasoconstrictive effects) are closely watched. (They are obtained through commercially cultured ergot fungus; one could theoretically extract lsyergic amides from morning glory or Hawaiian wood rose seeds.) (Though there are routes to synthesize lysergic acid from "scratch", these are complicated also.) Other typically needed chemicals are very dangerous. Serious experience in organic chemistry lab would be necessary. If you have to ask where to find the recipes, you don't know enough about chemistry to try it. (For the curious: the _Anarchists Cookbook_ is a bad place to start. _Psychedelic Chemistry_ is better, the patent office or chem. lit. better.) And you'll probably trip during manufacture if you actually succeed. Its easier and safer to buy it on the black market. ..... >In the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 1980, there is an article >on an ergot derivative used in obstetrics which is an hallucinogen. >Although the dose required is ten times the ED50 (.2 mg) no >significant ill effects were reported. >I believe the name of this drug is methyl ergovine(?) The drug >without the methyl group is supposed to be more effective. It >was (is?) a Sandoz drug, for those with a PDR. Ergonovine and methylergonovine are both oxytocic agents: they increase uterine tone and are used (rarely) to assist in delivery and (more frequently) to stop post-partum uterine hemorrhage. Less frequently, they can be used to abort a migraine headache. If they have any hallucinogenic effects, it is certainly a well-kept secret. I would be quite concerned about taking 10x the therapeutic dose of a drug like ergonovine, since it can cause arterial spasm and precordial distress even in healthy persons, and intense vaso- constriction and gangrene can follow from an overdose. These are not drugs to fool around with. Another related drug, 1-methyl-methylergonovine, or methysergide (Sansert), is used in migraine prophylaxis, and is claimed to have LSD-like actions when high doses are taken. The methyl group on the indole nitrogen reduces the drug's vasoconstrictive actions. Chronic, uninterrupted use of the drug causes a fibrosis of the heart valves and the lungs. ..... >You mean to tell me that the people who make LSD have a GC/MS in their >basement and know how to use it properly. No, but they probably run the GC/MS where they work and can sneak samples in -- or else know someone in a chem department somewhere that can do it for them. >I had no idea that the field was >so high tech. LSD is not particularly easy to synthesize. It certainly takes a little bit more than 2nd year O-Chem to do it. There are various synthetic methods floating around the net, along with methods published in _psychedelic chemistry_ but i gather that they're all more difficult than some relatively recent methods... ..... When I saw the subjects relating to the synthesis of LSD, I knew the information would be outdated. It's humourous to see people who think they're in the know giving out information that was outdated even in the 70's. Lysergic acid amides are commonly made by a simple and efficient procedure using POCl3 and the desired amine in CHCl3 solution. I doubt that this procedure is used by the majority of clandestine chemists, but since I don't know any, I wouldn't know. By the description of the procedure, it's simple and uses relatively safe reagents. (I have a reference, but not handy...) And you won't find it in any obvious places even in the most recent Merck because LSD is not the product of focus in the article. This is why I doubt that unsavvy clandestine chemists would be using this procedure. But according to the article, the method has a broad scope and has been used by Nichols and Oberlender for some other lysergic acid amides. (The article in question regards 9,10 saturated derivatives tested for emetic properties.) It's time to stop turning to those stupid "how to make your very own drug" guides and learn how to read real chemsitry literature. If you can't, don't bother... Even the synthesis of lysergic acid is outdated. Rebek has described an extremely elegant synthesis of methyl lysergate from L-tryptophan which gives only the natural isomer of lysergic acid. It's still a several step procedure, but most of the reagents are fairly common and the yields are greatly improved over past syntheses. This brings me to an interesting side-note. Several years ago, analogues of LSD that were 2 and 3 times as potent as LSD were synthesized. These went largely unnoticed and would most likely prove of little interest to clandestine chemists because LSD was the precursor used and the loss in synthesis outweighed the gain in potency. But using Rebek's synthesis, one could simply alter the procedure slightly and intorduce the groups that make the compounds more potent. When the 6N-methyl group is replaced by ethyl or allyl, it becomes 2 and 3 times as potent respectively. I am posting this for general information. I may post references if I decide it would be prudent. Requests will be ignored and I ask you not to send e-mail requesting references. But if you just want to chat about them and maybe speculate on subjective effects or other avenues of substitution... I don't know if I'll ever see the day that research in this area is open and legal, but I'd love to... ***** DRUG TESTING: No risk. Its not looked for, hard to find, and transient. ..... "A maximum concentration of 2-8 ng/ml [Plasma concentration of LSD] was reached 1.0-1.25 h after an oral dose of 160 ug. ...[A] value of 2.9 h for the elimination half-life of LSD from plasma [was reached]. [Upshall, D.G., Wailling, D.G.: The determination of LSD in human plasma following oral administration. Clinica Chimica Acta 36, 67-73 (1972)] Second of all, LSD and its metabolites are detectable in the urine for much longer than one hour. "LSD and its metabolites were still detectable in human urine for as long as 4 days after the ingestion of 0.2 mg of the drug. [Faed, E.M., McLeod, W.R.: A urine screening test of lysergide. Journal of Chromatographic Science. 11, 4-6 (1973)] Note that standard, cheap initial drug screening does not use chromatography or mass-spectrometry, and does not look for LSD. ..... There were rumors going around that LSD could be detected by drug tests fo thirty days. I think this reference and abstract makes it clear that it is probably 4 days, max. (see the end of the abstract) IDNUM 03319915 TYPE Journal paper DATE 880715 AUTHOR Heng Keang Lim; Andrenyak, D.; Francom, P.; Foltz, R.L.; Jones, R.T. Center for Human Toxicology, Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT, USA TITLE Quantification of LSD and N-demethyl-LSD in urine by gas chromatography/resonance electron capture ionization mass spectrometry SOURCE Analytical Chemistry; vol.60, no.14; 15 July 1988; pp. 1420-5 SUBJECT chromatography; electron capture; mass spectroscopic chemical analysis; organic compounds; quantification; gas chromatography; resonance electron capture ionisation mass spectrometry; LSD; N-demethyl-LSD; urine; lysergic acid diethylamide; human; in vitro; in vivo; aromatic hydroxylation; drug; metabolite; N-tri-fluoroacetyl derivatives; calibration curves; urinary concentrations; adult volunteer; excretion; elimination half-lives; 4 to 6 hrs; 8 to 10 hrs Numerical data: time 1.4E+04 to 2.2E+04 s; time 2.9E+04 to 3.6E+04 s Class codes: A8280M; A8280B; A3470 CODEN ANCHAM ABSTRACT Demethylation of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the human has been demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, and aromatic hydroxylation at positions 13 and 14 has been tentatively identified. A gas chromatography/resonance electron capture ionization mass spectrometry (GC/MS) assay for LSD and N-demethyl-LSD in urine has been developed, in which the drug and its metabolite are converted to their N-tri-fluoroacetyl derivatives prior to GC/MS analysis. Linear and reproducible calibration curves have been obtained for LSD concentrations from 0.05 to 5.0 ng/mL, and for N-demethyl-LSD concentrations from 0.03 to 5.0 ng/mL. The assay was used to determine the urinary concentrations of LSD and N-demethyl-LSD following administration of a single oral dose of the drug (1 mu g/kg) to an adult volunteer. The rates of excretion of LSD and N-demethyl-LSD reached maxima in urine collected at time intervals of 4-6 and 8-10 h after administration, respectively. The elimination half-lives for LSD and N-demethyl-LSD were 3.6 and 10.0 h, respectively MISCELLANEOUS Treatment: experimental Anal. Chem. (USA) Abstract number(s): A89037987 ISSN: 0003-2700 Refs: 15 ..... If you smoke only occasionally (once or twice a month) you are likely to pass a urine test within no more than 3-5 days. If you smoke several times a week, you should allow at least 3-4 weeks, and if you smoke several time daily, you may need 6 weeks or more (84 days is the record). However, there are ways that can help you pass a urine test on shorter notice. For info, contact California NORML, 2215-R Market St. #278, San Francisco CA 94114; (415) 563-5858. What they are most likely to detect about a diluted sample is incorrect temperature. More and more labs are checking to see that the specimen is within the range 92-100 degrees F. To my knowledge, no one looks at cholrine or fluorine. Howver, there has been some talk of testing creatanin levels, which can tell if urine has been diluted. Actually, your friend took an unnecessary risk in diluting his sample in the first place. The fact is that occasional marijuana use (say, on the order of once a month or two weeks) is typically detectable only 2-5 days. A lot of occasional users get really paranoid because they hear of marijuana] staying around 4-6 weeks, but this is true only for regular users who smoke every day. For info about urine testing, send to Cal. NORML, 2215-R Market St. #278, San Francisco CA 94114 (415) 563-5858. ..... Spinal taps are not particularly useful (cerebro-spinal fluid doesn't concentrate LSD or metabolites) and are never done under any circumstances: they are painful and dangerous. ..... You might want to mention that Abbie Hoffman's _Steal This Urine Test_ has a table which claims lsd is detectable for 40 days. I'm almost sure this was a typo. ..... > 1] How long can LSD be detected in the body? This varies by the test being used, the detection limit placed on the test, the point of collection and type of the sample fluid, the amount of LSD that was taken, and the individual in question. Assuming the testers are using an RIA screening test with the cutoff set at 0.1 ng/ml and assuming that the user has recently emptied their bladder, then the detection limit for one hit (100 ug) is normally around 30 hours. Each doubling of the initial amount will add about 5 hours. Thus taking 8 hits will leave a user vulnerable for approximately 2 days. (NOTE: This is based on the data in ) > 2] What exact form of test can be used to detect LSD in the body? There are a number of tests which can be used to detect LSD in the body. Abuscreen, a product of Roche Diagnostic Systems, is a series of RadioImmunoAssay (RIA) tests, one of which is used to detect LSD and its metabolites in whole blood, serum (blood), urine and stomach contents . RIA can in theory be used to detect quantities as small as 0.020 nanograms (ng) per milliliter (ml) of sample . Laboratory tests have shown that RIA results are accurate down to at least 0.1 ng/ml . The manufacturer recommends limiting the cutoff to 0.5 ng/ml. EMIT, a product of Syva Corporation, is another series of tests, one of which can be used to detect LSD and its metabolites in serum and urine. EMIT stands for Enzyme Multiplied Immunoassay Technique. Both EMIT and Abuscreen are "positive/negative" response tests (much like pregnancy tests) which require periodic equipment calibration and consume chemicals for each test performed. A basic battery of tests costs approx. $15-$25 per person . The basic tests (recommended by NIDA) include marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines, opiates, and phencyclidine (PCP). Normally, unless an (employer) specifically requests the test, an LSD assay is not run. Both Roche and Syva recommend confirmation of positive results by using a different test. The usual method of confirming positive results is some form of chromatography. These include High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC), and different forms of Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). HPTLC and GC/MS can be used to give quantitative results as opposed to the Boolean results from EMIT or Abuscreen. Laboratory tests have shown that GC/MS test for LSD in urine and blood can be accurate down to 0.1 ng/ml. The cost for confirmation of a positive screening test is approximately $50-60. Positive results to either EMIT and RIA are held to be "probable cause" by U.S. courts. GC/MS results are held to be "proof" by U.S. courts. > I am asking for an actual text message containing a short, precise > description of each test, Immunoassays chemicals are created by injecting animals (rabbits, sheep, donkey, etc) with the drug to be tested for and an albumin which force the animal to produce antibodies. The antibodies are then removed from the animal, purified and bottled. In RIA tests, the antibodies are then added to the fluid sample with a radioactively labeled chemical. Any of the drug (or similar chemicals) found in a sample that is being tested will react with this glop and by measuring the radioactivity, the amount of drugs can be determined . > 3] How can such a test be beaten? While there is some literature on adulterating urine samples to produce false negative results , there has been little written that applies specifically to the LSD screening tests. The immunsoassay tests vary in their specificity. Some display a relatively low cross-reactivity, others a high cross-reactivity. The exact metabolites of LSD in humans have not been fully determined yet, though animal studies have been done. The only verified human metabolite I could find in the literature was N-demethyl-LSD but I did not check all the references. FOOTNOTES:  Altunkaya, D; Smith R.N. "Evaluation of a commercial radioimmunoassay kit for the detection of lysergide (LSD) in serum, whole blood, urine, and stomach contents" Forensic Science International. v47n2, September 1990, p113-21.  Taunton-Rigby, A.; Sher, S.E.; Kelley, P.R. "Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: Radioimmunoassay" Science. v181, July 13 1973, p165-6.  McCarron, M.M.; Walberg, C.B.; Baselt, R.C. "Confirmation of LSD intoxication by analysis of serum and urine." Journal of Analytical Toxicology. v14n3, May-June 1990, p165-7.  Berg, E. "Drug-testing methods: what you should know." Safety & Health. v142n6, Dec 1990, p52-6.  Lim, H.K.; Andrenyak, D.; Francom, P.; Bridges, R.R.; Foltz, R.L. "Determination of LSD in urine by capillary column gas chromatography and electron impact mass spectrometry." Journal of Analytical Toxicology. v12n1, Jan-Feb 1988, p1-8.  Lim, H.K.; Andrenyak, D.; Francom, P. "Quantification of LSD and N-demethyl-LSD in urine by gas chromatography/ resonance electron capture ionization mass spectrometry." Analytical Chemistry. v60, July 15 1988, p1420-25.  Papac, D.I.; Foltz, R.L. "Measurement of lysergic acid dietylamide (LSD) in human plasma by gas chromatography/negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry." Journal of Analytical Toxicology. v14n3, May-June 1990, p189-90.  Paul, B.D.; Mitchell J.M.; Burbage, R.; Moy, M; Sroka, R. "Gas chromatographic-electron-impact mass fragmentometric determination of lysergic acid diethylamide in urine." Journal of Chromatography. v529n1, July 13, 1990, p103-12.  Blum, L.M.; Carenzo, E.F.; Rieders, F. "Determination of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in urine by instrumental high-performance thin-layer chromatography." Journal of Analytical Toxicology. v14n5, Sep-Oct 1990, p285-7.  Ratcliffe, W.A.; Fletcher, S.M.; Moffat, A.C.; et. al. "Radioimmunoassay of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD) in serum and urine by using antisera of different specificities." Clinical Chemistry. v23n2, Feb 1977, p169-74.  Cody, J.T.; Schwarzhoff, R.H. "Impact of adulterants on RIA analysis of urine for drugs of abuse." Journal of Analytical Toxicology. v13n5, Sep-Oct 1989, p277-84.  Klonoff, D.C. "Acute water intoxication as a complication of urine drug testing in the workplace." Journal of the American Medical Association. v265n1, Jan 2 1991, p84-6.  Christie J.; White, M.W.; Wiles, J.M. "A chromatographic method for the detection of LSD in biological liquids." Journal of Chromatography. v120n2, May 26, 1976, p496-501.  Twitchet, P.J.; Fletcher, S.M.; Sullivan, A.T.; Moffat, A.C. "Analysis of LSD in human body fluids by high-performance liquid chromatography, fluorescence spectroscopy and radioimmunoassay." J. Chromatogr. v150n1, March 11 1978, p73-84. Sorry this was so long but I thought it deserved it :-) Enjoy a "referenced" article. Tim Basher ..... There were rumors going around that LSD could be detected by drug tests fo thirty days. I think this reference and abstract makes it clear that it is probably 4 days, max. (see the end of the abstract) IDNUM 03319915 TYPE Journal paper DATE 880715 AUTHOR Heng Keang Lim; Andrenyak, D.; Francom, P.; Foltz, R.L.; Jones, R.T. Center for Human Toxicology, Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT, USA TITLE Quantification of LSD and N-demethyl-LSD in urine by gas chromatography/resonance electron capture ionization mass spectrometry SOURCE Analytical Chemistry; vol.60, no.14; 15 July 1988; pp. 1420-5 SUBJECT chromatography; electron capture; mass spectroscopic chemical analysis; organic compounds; quantification; gas chromatography; resonance electron capture ionisation mass spectrometry; LSD; N-demethyl-LSD; urine; lysergic acid diethylamide; human; in vitro; in vivo; aromatic hydroxylation; drug; metabolite; N-tri-fluoroacetyl derivatives; calibration curves; urinary concentrations; adult volunteer; excretion; elimination half-lives; 4 to 6 hrs; 8 to 10 hrs Numerical data: time 1.4E+04 to 2.2E+04 s; time 2.9E+04 to 3.6E+04 s Class codes: A8280M; A8280B; A3470 CODEN ANCHAM ABSTRACT Demethylation of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the human has been demonstrated, both in vitro and in vivo, and aromatic hydroxylation at positions 13 and 14 has been tentatively identified. A gas chromatography/resonance electron capture ionization mass spectrometry (GC/MS) assay for LSD and N-demethyl-LSD in urine has been developed, in which the drug and its metabolite are converted to their N-tri-fluoroacetyl derivatives prior to GC/MS analysis. Linear and reproducible calibration curves have been obtained for LSD concentrations from 0.05 to 5.0 ng/mL, and for N-demethyl-LSD concentrations from 0.03 to 5.0 ng/mL. The assay was used to determine the urinary concentrations of LSD and N-demethyl-LSD following administration of a single oral dose of the drug (1 mu g/kg) to an adult volunteer. The rates of excretion of LSD and N-demethyl-LSD reached maxima in urine collected at time intervals of 4-6 and 8-10 h after administration, respectively. The elimination half-lives for LSD and N-demethyl-LSD were 3.6 and 10.0 h, respectively MISCELLANEOUS Treatment: experimental Anal. Chem. (USA) Abstract number(s): A89037987 ISSN: 0003-2700 Refs: 15 ***** LEGAL SCHEDULING: Class I, "no medical use" --- mostly for political reasons, as it was and is used in psychotherapy. (Current use is in Switzerland.) Though LSD has very different subjective qualities than MDMA, Dutch psy chiatrist Dr. Hans Bastiaans' use of LSD for decades in the treatment of concentration camp survivors is an inspiring example of the beneficial use of psychedelics in the treatment of people with severe trauma. ***** SET and SETTING: "SET" is the expectations a person brings with them. "Setting" is the environment that a person is in. Set includes expectations about the drug's actions and how the person will react. Setting includes the social and physical conditions. For LSD and the hallucinogen-type drug more than other psychoactives, set and setting are very important in determining the nature of the experience. These factors make the difference between, e.g., the experiences of someone taking the drug for enhancement at a concert, for psychotherapy in an doctor's office, in a religious context, or in the outdoors for an aesthetic experience. For best results, one should take LSD only with people one trusts in safe, comfortable surroundings, free of everyday intrusions. Tripping alone is a very risky thing to do, that inexperienced people should avoid. ***** STORAGE: First, note that LSD is a fairly stable organic molecule, no more or less fragile than other molecules with comparable structures. The main factors to be concerned with are moisture (due to leaching and facilitated chemical reactions in the presense of moisture), oxygen, light, and temperature. Reaction rates typically depend upon temperature exponentially. These factors basically apply to all organic compounds. Sealing in AL foil in a cool dark place is fine. Some recommend refrigeration, but be careful about nosy guests, condensation, and frost. Multiple, redundant seals are suggested, eg., paper in metal foil in plastic in a metal candy tin which has been taped shut. Should last at least a presidential term. Wallets are contraindicated as storage locations due to sweat. ***** SYNERGIES, BAD COMBINATIONS: Smoking cannabis products considerably increases the effects, increasing the visuals and also possibly increasing the cognitive and linguistic disorders. As the effects of LSD wear off, marijuana may bring them back, and also ease the jitteriness some dislike. Nitrous oxide goes well with LSD, though one should be extra careful (not to suffocate or fall down) with the nitrous because of the effects of the LSD. MDA & cousins can go well, but people on these drugs should not take LSD unless they are familiar with the latter's effects. Alcohol's effects are largely overwhelmed by LSD, and they act in opposite ways: alcohol being a depressant and LSD being a (hyper)stimulant. Generally mixing stimulants and sedatives is counterproductive. MAO inhibitors ??? Amphetamines and cocaine ??? ***** AFTEREFFECTS: The psychedelic experience is not something that should be undertaken lightly. While you will be physically OK after the trip, and odds are you'll still have all the bolts in your head screwed in right afterward, the trip is very likely to cause lasting mental changes. All the following effects are strongest in the days or weeks after the trip, but they may well continue in some form for the rest of your life. You may see mild hallucinations in dark rooms or with your eyes closed. Objects may seem to vibrate. After prolonged use tracers and open-eye hallucinations may appear. Especially immediately after the trip, you may experience odd mood swings and irrational impulses (harmless ones, but people may still think you're nuts if you fulfill the impulse of "Gee, I really want to jump up on that rock and bounce on it because life is so wonderful"). Your perception of objects is very likely indeed to change. You may become captivated by sights such as snow falling on a dark winter night or the shadows caused by a candle flame. Insights acquired during the trip may also have lasting effects. There are many cases of people discovering a hidden aspect of themselves, ie. that they are homosexual or that the philosophy/religion they have adhered to their life is wrong. While the insight itself may be beneficial, the process of adjusting to it is often painful. Very few LSD users regret taking the drug, but before taking it one should still be aware of what may happen. LSD is not an ticket to nirvana or the cure to all the problems of humanity. ..... It seems to me that among the many positive benefits from drug use, especially acid and to a lesser degree other hallucinogens is an enhanced appreciation of beauty. That is finding aesthetically pleasing images that other people tend to ignore or not appreciate. Things like enjoying the pattern of frost that forms on a glass, or the lights of a city, or just the paterns formed on the inside of our eyelids. This is not just limited to the periods when one is actually under the effects of the substance. For example while driving into a city at night with a mixed group of people, one of the persons in the car who occaisionally uses acid was very taken with the image and described it in very poetic picturesque words, without exception those who also used drugs were able to sympathize and understand what the person was talking about. The rest of the car just looked at them strangely. Or another instant that comes to mind is the time someone came in from outside very excited and told about how pretty the lights shining off the frost on the cars in the parking lot looked, the only people who went back out to look at this were those that had at some point partaken of these psychoactives. Annother example is a time early in the morning after a long night of talking and general togetherness, everyone was sitting back with thier eyes closed and talking about the images that were coming to thier mind, talking about what they could see in thier mind's eye, and sharing it with the others there, going from one person to annother around the room, the people who did drugs had visions that were remarkably more detailed, vivid, and unusual. Further they could seem to relate to what the otehr people were describing better. Let me emphasize that in none of these instances was anyone under the influence of anything, this was merely their normal mindset. It is not that the non-users couldn't see the beauty, it is just that they were not excited or empassioned about it, it did not touch them as deeply. ***** REFERENCES & FURTHER READING: HISTORICAL: LSD: My Problem Child [A. Hofmann, PhD] (excellent) Storming heaven : LSD and the American dream [Jay Stevens]. (excellent) Ceremonical Chemistry [T. Szasz, M.D.] (excellent) Acid Dreams Drugs and the Brain Psychedelics Reconsidered Electric Koolaid Acid Test Flashbacks (Leary's autobiography) The Great Drug War Dealing With Drugs USAGE/INFORMATIONAL: Psychedelic Encyclopedia [Stafford] (excellent) Psychedelic Chemistry [M.V.Smith] Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology (technical) Consumer Reports: Licit & Illicit Drugs Recreational Drugs REFERENCE: Merck Handbook Physician's Desk Reference The Botany And Chemistry Of Hallucinogens, Shultes & Hofmann JOURNALS: Journal of Psychoactive (formerly Psychedelic) Drugs ..... AUTHOR: Cohen, Sidney AUTHOR AFFILIATION: U California School of Medicine, Neuropsychiatric Inst, Los Angeles TITLE: LSD: The varieties of psychotic experience. SOURCE: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 1985 Oct-Dec Vol 17(4) 291-296 ABSTRACT: Discusses the contributing factors (e.g., preexisting character structure, insecurity, negative experience, current mood and stress level) and prevention and treatment of acute and prolonged psychotic reactions to LSD. (10 ref) ..... Additional (detailed) References (in random order): "Indole Alkaloids In Plant Hallucinogens" Richard Evans Schultes, PhD. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs Vol.8(No.1) Jan-Mar 1976 "Ethnopharmacology and Taxonomy of Mexican Psychodysleptic Plants" Jose Luis Diaz M.D. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs Vol. 11(1-2) Jan-Jun 1979 "The Botanical and Chemical Distribution of Hallucinogens" Richard Evans Schultes, PhD. Journal of Psychedelic Drugs Vol.9(No.3) Jul-Sep 1977 "Burger's Medicinal Chemistry" Fourth Edition, Volume III Chapter: "Hallucinogens" Alexander Shulgin J. Psychoactive Drugs Vol 21 (1) Jan-Mar 1989 The Addictive Behaviors: treatment of alcoholism, drug use, smoking, and obesity W.R. Miller, Ed (small amount of info on use of psychedelics in psychotherapy) Pergammon press 1986 Biological Basis Of Behavior N.Chalmers R. Crawley S.P.R.Rose Eds Open Univ Press Harper & Row1971 Recreational Drugs Young Klein Beyer Collier Books, div of Macmillan pub co 1977 The Biochemical Basis Of Neuropharmacology J.R.Cooper F.E.Bloom R.H.Roth Oxford Univ Press 1982 (4th ed) Craving For Ecstasy: Consciousness And Chemistry Of Escape H.Milkman S.Sunderwirth Lexington Books, DC Heath and co 1987 A Primer of Drug Action R.M.Julian W.H.Freeman & Co.1978 LSD & Creativity O.Janiger, M.D.de Rios J. Psychoactive Drugs Vol 21 (1) Jan-Mar 1989 An Introduction To Pharmacology J.J.Lewis Williams and wilkins Co, Baltimore 1964 (3rd edition) Metabolism Of Drugs Of Abuse Spectrum Publications 1976 Dist by Halstead Press of John Wiley Press L. Lemberger Medicinal Chemistry: a series of monographs G.deStevens Ed Vol 4: Psychopharmaceutical agents M. Gordon (ed) Vol I, ch 13: psychomimetic compounds D.F.Downing Vol II, ch 4: psychomimetic agents by A.T.Shulgin Academic press 1976 The Road To Eleusis Unveiling the secret of the mysteries R.G.Wasson, A.Hoffman, C.A.P.Ruck harcourt brace jovanovich inc. 1978 Lsd Man And Society R.C.Debold, R.C.Leaf Eds Wesleyan U press Middletown Conn 1967 Hallucinogenic Plants (A Golden Guide) New York: Golden Press 1976 Shultes, R.E., Smith E.W. The Sun And The Moon A.Weil, MD The Natural Mind A.Weil, MD 1986 Houghton-mifflin pub co. Sacred Narcotic Plants Of The New World Indians H. Schleiffer ed. Hafner press 1973 Div of mcmillan pub co Moksha: Writings On Psychedlics And The Visionary Experience A.C.huxley stonehill pub co., NY M.Horowitz, C. palmer Eds 1977 Psychedelic Chemistry m.v.smith 2nd edition 1973 rip off press Psychotropic Methoxyamphetamines: Structure And Activity In Man S.H.Snyder, E.Richelson, H.Weingartner, LA.Faillace Ethnopharmacological Search For Psychoactive Drugs Proc of a symposium in SF, Ca Jan 28-30 1967 D.H.Efron, B.Holmstedt, N.S.Kline eds US Dept of HEW The Botany And Chemistry Of Hallucinogens R.E.Schultes, A.Hofmann charles C Thomas Publisher Springfield Ill 1980 The Behavioral Effects Of Drugs (Ch 4 Hallucinogens: Complications of LSD: A Review of the Literature; Dimensions of the LSD, Methlphenidate, and Chlordiazepoxide Experiences; LSD: Injection Early in Pregnancy Produces Abnormality in Offspring of Rats; LSD: No Teratogenicity in Rats; Congenital Malformation Induced by Mescaline, LSD, and Bromolysergic Acid in the Hamster; Drug Motivated-Behavior: The Effect of Morning Glory Seeds On Motor Activity In Chicks) (Also Includes Weil'S Study Of "Clinical and Psychological Effects Of Marijuana In Man") D.W. Matheson M.A. Davidson Holt Rinehart Winston Inc 1972 any textbook titled "Physiological Psychology" ..... *BOOKS* (For a complete listing of books that we have in the No More Drug War Foundation Research Library, e-mail or write your address to me: Gerald Bryan, Secretary The No More Drug War Foundation 2045 Kearney St. Denver, CO 80207-3919 303/388-5495 days 303/394-3930 evenings) BREAKING THE IMPASSE IN THE WAR ON DRUGS, by Steven Wisotsky, 1986, 279 pages, $35.00, Greenwood Press. Sympathetic to the idea of legalization. Can be ordered from publisher at 88 Post Road West, Box 5007 PSYCHEDELIC DRUGS RECONSIDERED, by Lester Grinspoon & James B. Bakalar, 1979, 1981, Basic Books, Inc. Good book that covers all aspects of psychedelic drugs, written by Harvard professors. You can probably order this from anywhere. ECSTASY: THE MDMA STORY, by Bruce Eisner, mid-1980s. Covers all aspects of this drug, good book, available anywhere. PSYCHEDELICS ENCYCLOPEDIA, by Peter Stafford, Revised Edition, 1983, J.P. Tarcher, Inc. Great resource book, you can probably order this from anywhere (huge bookstore in Denver had it in stock) *ORGANIZATIONS* The Drug Policy Foundation The grand-father of all the 4801 Massachusetts Ave., N.W. legalization groups, this one Suite 400 appeals to educated mainstream Washington, D.C. 20016-2087 folk. Holds annual conference, 202/895-1634 has respectability. This is a MUST-JOIN !! Multidisciplinary Assoc. for Educational group seeking to Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) give drug study legitimization 23A Shaler Lane through normal public policy Cambridge, MA 02138 channels. Supports drug 617/547-7271 research projects worldwide. The Albert Hofmann Foundation Educational group seeking to 132 West Channel Road build a library to house Suite 324 vast amount of research work Santa Monica, CA 90402 done on consciousness, including extensive LSD studies. Coalition for 100% Drug Reform Political, grass-roots activist 9 Bleecker Street group seeking an end to zero- New York, NY 10012 tolerance policies and promoting 212/995-1245 safe drug use education. They have a drug reform conference scheduled for Dec 1-3. The No More Drug War Foundation Activist group seeking to bring Box 18780 an end to the drug war through Denver, CO 80218 grass-roots political action & 303/320-1910 education. N.O.R.M.L. Still around, still holding pot 2001 'S' Street, N.W. rallies. Good for people who Suite 640 want MJ legalized but don't care Washington, D.C. 20009 about other drugs. 202/483-5500 Ed Hassle's Freedom Fighters Activist group associated with Trans-High Corp High Times. Similar agenda to 211 East 43rd St. NORML. NY, NY 10017 PRIDE Yes, this is an anti-drug, 50 Hurt Plaza pro-drug-war group, but they Suite 210 publish a good newsletter Atlanta, Georgia 30303 that informs well on what the 404/577-4500 opposition is doing. 800/241-7946 ..... (about visual disturbances: ) Migraine: the evolution of a common disorder O. Sacks U CAl press 1970 Brain Damage, Behavior, And The Mind M. Williams John Wiley & Sons 1979 ch 5 Disorders of visual perception Mescal And Mechanisms Of Hallucinations Heinrich Kluver U. Chicago Press 1930 Drugs And The Brain Perry Black MD, Ed Johns Hopkins Press 1969 behavioral effects of LSD in subhuman primates Hallucinations Sci Am R.K.Siegal (see also article on phosphenes in amateur scientist column in another issue) Luria's _The Shattered Mind_ Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS) - Your Psychedelic Pharmaceutical Company by Rick Doblin, MAPS President MAPS, 1801 Tippah Avenue, Charlotte, NC. 28205 Phone (704) 3 58-9830, FAX (704) 358-1650, e-mail RICKMAPS@aol.com Becoming a member of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, Inc. (MAPS) and receiving the MAPS newsletter is an excellent way to stay abreast of the latest developments in psychedelic research around the world. In addition, your membership donation will be used to support research into the medical uses of MDMA, LSD, marijuana, and a cornucopia of other fascinating compounds. MAPS is an IRS-approved non-profit corporation supported by tax-deductible contributions from a membership of about five hundred people and growing. MAPS works to develop the medical potential of MDMA and other psychedelics by assisting researchers around the world to design, obtain governmental approval for, fund, conduct and report on psychedelic research. MAPS is also involved in research exploring the medical use of marijuana. MAPS' primary goals are to help researchers conduct the studies necessary to transform MDMA and marijuana into FDA-approved prescription medicines. For MDMA, this is an estimated ten-year, $10 million project; for mar ijuana, a two-year, $500,000 task. MAPS offers its members a quarterly newsletter reporting on MAPS-sponsored and other psychedelic research in progress both in the US and abroad, political developments that affect psychedelic research and use, and conferences, books and articles of interest. In addition, MAPS offers for sale various unique publications (for example the protocol submitted to the FDA for the investigation of the use of MDMA in the treatment of pain and distress in terminal cancer patients), videotapes (of a MAPS benefit held in Berkeley in 1990 that featured Jerry Beck, Ram Dass, Bruce Eisner, Rick Doblin, Laura Huxley, Emerson Jackson, Mark Kleiman, Timothy Leary, Dennis McKenna, Terence McKenna, Ralph Metzner, Andrew Weil, and Robert Zanger), and audiotapes (of a MAPS seminar held in Prague in 1992 featuring Ram Dass, Ken Ring and Richard Yensen discussing working with the terminally ill with psychedelics). Since its inception in 1986, MAPS has invested about $75,000, donated by its members, into preliminary FDA-required 28-day MDMA toxicity studies in the dog and rat. These studies were submitted to the FDA in order to open MAPS' FDA Drug Master File for MDMA. These toxicity studies were a prerequisite for all FDA-approved studies involving the administration of MDMA to human volunteers. When UC Irvine psychiatrist Dr. Charles Grob applied to the FDA to conduct human research with MDMA, MAPS provided him with written permission to cross-reference its MDMA Drug Master File. This document saved Dr. Grob from having to reproduce the toxicity data, a hurdle that he would have foun d prohibitively expensive. MAPS has also invested an additional $125,000 on pilot studies into the effect of MDMA on the serotonin levels of humans, on MDMA neurotoxicity studies in the primate, and on protocol design for Phase 1 and Phase 2 human studies with MDMA. In addition to MAPS' preliminary toxicity research and its subsequent efforts on protocol design, MAPS successfully assisted Dr. Charles Grob in obtaining FDA permission to study the effects of MDMA on human volunteers. Dr. Grob's study is the first that the FDA has ever permitted involving the administration of MDMA to human volunteers. The study is designed to gather information for a subsequent study by Dr. Grob which will investigate the use of MDMA in the treatment of pain and distress in end-stage pancreatic cancer patients. MAPS intends to raise funds for Dr. Grob's studies and provide him with whatever scientific and profess ional support he may need to conduct his experiments. One function of MAPS is to conduct MDMA research as if MAPS were a pharmaceutical company interested in making MDMA into a prescription medicine. The critical difference is that MAPS makes its data available for free to responsible researchers to help advance the field of MDMA research rather than keep the data as proprietary information. In this way, duplication of expensive required studies is eliminated and researchers can focus on research rather than profit considerations. ***** This file is in the public domain. Distribute freely. -- __ Jani "Gnosis" Poijärvi On the neverending quest /(o\ BRAHMAN email@example.com for knowledge by identity. \o)/ +358-0-498797
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