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NTP CHEMICAL REPOSITORY
   1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE


-IDENTIFIERS
 ===========

*CATALOG ID NUMBER: 000553

*CAS NUMBER: 71-55-6

*BASE CHEMICAL NAME: TRICHLOROETHANE,1,1,1-

*PRIMARY NAME: 1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE

*CHEMICAL FORMULA: C2H3Cl3

*STRUCTURAL FORMULA: CH3CCl3

*WLN: GXGG1

*SYNONYMS:
  METHYL CHLOROFORM
  METHYLTRICHLOROMETHANE
  ALPHA-TRICHLOROETHANE
  CHLOROETHENE
  CHLOROTHENE
  1,1,1-TCE
  AEROTHENE TT
  CHLOROETENE
  CHLOROETHENE NU
  CHLOROTHANE NU
  CHLOROTHENE (INHIBITED)
  CHLOROTHENE NU
  CHLOROTHENE VG
  CHLORTEN
  INHIBISOL
  METHYLCHLOROFORM
  NCI-C04626
  RCRA WASTE NUMBER U226
  SOLVENT 111
  STROBANE
  ALPHA-T
  TRI-ETHANE
  UN 2831


-PHYSICAL CHEMICAL DATA
 ======================

*PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION: LITERATURE: Clear colorless liquid
                       REPOSITORY: Clear colorless liquid

*MOLECULAR WEIGHT: 133.40

*SPECIFIC GRAVITY: 1.3376 @ 20/4 C [031,043,205]

*DENSITY: 1.3376 g/mL @ 20 C [421]

*MP (DEG C): -32.5 C [025,031,051]

*BP (DEG C): 74.1 C [031,043,395,421]

*SOLUBILITIES:
       WATER : <1 mg/mL @ 20 C (RAD)

        DMSO : >=100 mg/mL @ 20 C (RAD)

 95% ETHANOL : >=100 mg/mL @ 20 C (RAD)

    METHANOL : Soluble [031,043,051,395]

     ACETONE : Reacts [051,269,451]

     TOLUENE : Not available

 OTHER SOLVENTS:
  Benzene: Soluble [031,043,205,395]
  Ether: Soluble [017,031,043,395]
  Chloroform: Soluble [017,047]
  Carbon tetrachloride: Soluble [031,043,051,395]
  Carbon disulfide: Soluble [051,395]
  Most organic solvents: Miscible [295,421]

*VOLATILITY:
    Vapor pressure: 100 mm Hg @ 20 C [038,043,055,058]; 125 mm Hg @ 25 C [051]
    Vapor density : 4.6 [051,058,371]

*FLAMMABILITY(FLASH POINT):
      This chemical has a flash point of >93.3 C (>200 F) (RAD).  It burns only
 in excess oxygen or air if a strong source of ignition is present [421].  Fires
 involving this material can be controlled with a dry chemical, carbon dioxide
 or Halon extinguisher.  The autoignition temperature is 537 C (998 F) [051,
 451].

*UEL: 12.5% [451]                           LEL: 7.5% [451]

*REACTIVITY:
      This chemical decomposes in the presence of chemically active metals
 [102,346,395].  This includes aluminum, magnesium and their alloys [036,066,
 269,421].  It will react violently with dinitrogen tetraoxide, oxygen, liquid
 oxygen, sodium and sodium-potassium alloys [043,051,066,451].  It will also
 react violently with acetone, zinc and nitrates [269].  It can react with
 sodium hydroxide [043,051,451].  It is incompatible with strong oxidizers and
 strong bases [058,102,269,346].  Mixtures with potassium or its alloys are
 shock-sensitive and may explode on light impact [036,066].  This chemical can
 react with an aqueous suspension of calcium hydroxide, and with chlorine in
 sunlight [395].  It will attack some forms of plastics, rubber and coatings
 [102].  Upon contact with hot metal or on exposure to ultraviolet radiation,
 it will decompose to form irritant gases [346].  A cobalt/molybdenum-alumina
 catalyst will generate a substantial exotherm on contact with its vapor at
 ambient temperatures [066].  Hazardous reactions also occur with (aluminum
 oxide + heavy metals) [043].

*STABILITY:
      This chemical is hygroscopic [031,051,102,275].  It is oxidized by
 atmospheric oxygen at high temperatures [051,395].  It is reactive to sun-
 light at high altitudes [051].  Solutions of this chemical in anhydrous DMSO
 or ethanol should be stable for 24 hours under normal lab conditions (RAD).

*OTHER PHYSICAL DATA:
  Specific gravity: 1.3249 @ 26/4 C [430]; 1.3366 @ 25/4 C [051]
  Density: 1.336 g/mL @ 25 C [395]
  Freezing point: -38 C [062,102]
  Vapor pressure: 60 mm Hg @ 9.5 C; 200 mm Hg @ 36.2 C [038]
  Vapor pressure: 155 mm Hg @ 30 C [055]
  Explosive limits also reported as 8.0% to 10.5% [051,451]
  Refractive index: 1.4379 @ 20 C [017,047,205]; 1.43765 @ 21 C [430]
  Chloroform-like odor [051,346,371,451]
  Odor threshold: 100 ppm [371]
  Sinks in water [371]
  100% Volatile by volume [058]
  Flammable limits: 7%-16% [102,371]
  Burning rate: 2.9 mm/min [371]
  Liquid surface tension: 25.4 dynes/cm @ 20 C [371]
  Latent heat of vaporization: 58 cal/g [371]
  Heat of combustion: 2600 cal/g [371]
  Evaporation rate (butyl acetate=1): 6.0 (at 1 atmosphere and 25 C) [058]


-TOXICITY
 ========

*NIOSH REGISTRY NUMBER: KJ2975000

*TOXICITY: (abbreviations)
        typ. dose    mode     specie      amount     units     other
          LC50       ihl       cat        24400      mg/m3
          TCLo       ihl       hmn          920      ppm/70M
          LCLo       ihl       man           27      gm/m3/10M
          TCLo       ihl       man          350      ppm
          TCLo       ihl       man          200      ppm/4H
          LC50       ihl       mus         3911      ppm/2H
          LC50       ihl       rat        18000      ppm/4H
          LD50       ipr       dog         3100      mg/kg
          LD50       ipr       rat         3593      mg/kg
          LDLo       ivn       dog           95      mg/kg
          LD50       orl       dog          750      mg/kg
          LD50       orl       gpg         9470      mg/kg
          TDLo       orl       hmn          670      mg/kg
          LD50       orl       mus        11240      mg/kg
          LD50       orl       rat        10300      mg/kg
          LD50       orl       rbt         5660      mg/kg
          LD50       scu       mus           16      gm/kg
          LDLo       scu       rbt          500      mg/kg
          LDLo       skn       rbt            1      gm/kg
          LD50       ipr       mus         3636      mg/kg

*AQTX/TLM96: Not available

*SAX TOXICITY EVALUATION:
  THR: Poison by intravenous route.  Moderately toxic by ingestion, inhalation,
       skin contact, subcutaneous and intraperitoneal routes.  An experimental
       teratogen.  Experimental reproductive effects.  Mutagenic data.  A human
       skin irritant.  An experimental skin and severe eye irritant.  Narcotic
       in high concentrations.  Causes a proarrhythmic activity which sensitizes
       the heart to epinephrine-induced arrhythmias [043].

*CARCINOGENICITY:
  Review: IARC Cancer Review: Animal Inadequate Evidence
          IARC: Not classifiable as a human carcingen (Group 3) [610]
  Status: NCI Carcinogenesis Bioassay (Gavage); Inadequate Studies: Male and
           Female Rat, Male and Female Mouse [620]
          NTP Carcinogenesis Studies; selected, January 1988
          NTP Carcinogenesis Studies; test completed (reports on hold), January
           1988

*MUTATION DATA:
       test          lowest dose      |      test          lowest dose
    -----------   -----------------   |   -----------   -----------------
    dnr-esc          500 mg/L         |   otr-ham:emb      100 uL/plate
    mmo-sat           10 ug/plate     |   otr-mus:emb       20 mg/L
    mma-sat           10 ug/plate     |   otr-rat:emb       99 umol/L
    otr-ham:kdy      562 mg/L         |   cyt-ham:ovr      160 mg/L

*TERATOGENICITY:
  Reproductive Effects Data:
    TCLo: ihl-rat   2100 ppm/6H (1-20D preg)
    TDLo: orl-rat     43 mg/kg (1-22D preg/21D post)

*STANDARDS, REGULATIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS:
  OSHA: Federal Register (1/19/89) and 29 CFR 1910.1000 Subpart Z
        Transitional Limit: PEL-TWA 350 ppm [610]
        Final Limit: PEL-TWA 350 ppm; STEL 450 ppm [610]
  ACGIH: TLV-TWA 350 ppm; STEL 450 ppm [015,415,421,610]
  NIOSH Criteria Document: Recommended Exposure Limit to this compound-air:
                            Ceiling Limit 350 ppm/15M; Action level TWA 200 ppm
                            [610]
  NFPA Hazard Rating: Health (H): 3
                      Flammability (F): 1
                      Reactivity (R): 1
  H3: Materials extremely hazardous to health but areas may be entered
      with extreme care (see NFPA for details).
  F1: Materials that must be preheated before ignition can occur (see NFPA
      for details).
  R1: Materials which are normally stable but which may become unstable at
      elevated temperatures and pressures or which may react with water with
      some release of energy but not violently (see NFPA for details).

*OTHER TOXICITY DATA:
  Skin and Eye Irritation Data:
    eye-man   450 ppm/8H
    skn-rbt     5 gm/12D-I MLD
    skn-rbt    20 mg/24H MOD
    eye-rbt   100 mg MLD
    eye-rbt     2 mg/24H SEV
  Review: Toxicology Review-3
  Standards and Regulations: DOT-Hazard: ORM-A; Label: None
                             DOT-IMO: Poison B; Label: St. Andrews Cross
  Status: EPA Genetox Program 1988, Positive: Cell transform.-RLV F344 rat
           embryo
          EPA Genetox Program 1988, Negative: Sperm morphology-mouse
          EPA Genetox Program 1988, Inconclusive: Carcinogenicity-mouse/rat;
           Mammalian micronucleus
          EPA TSCA Chemical Inventory, 1986
          EPA TSCA 8(a) Preliminary Assessment Information, Final Rule
          EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Status Report 8EHQ-0283-0471 S
          EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Status Report 8EHQ-0980-0365
          EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Status Report 8EHQ-0982-0457
          EPA TSCA Section 8(e) Status Report 8EHQ-0979-0310
          EPA TSCA Test Submission (TSCATS) Data Base, June 1988
          NIOSH Current Intelligence Bulletin 27, 1978
          NIOSH Analytical Methods: see Hydrocarbons, Halogenated, 1003
          Meets criteria for proposed OSHA Medical Records Rule
  Adult fatal dose by ingestion or inhalation is estimated to be 5 mL [301]
  IDLH value: 1000 ppm [346,371]


-OTHER DATA (Regulatory)
 =======================

*PROPER SHIPPING NAME (IATA): 1,1,1-Trichloroethane

*UN/ID NUMBER: UN2831

*HAZARD CLASS: 6.1           SUBSIDIARY RISK: None    PACKING GROUP: III

*LABELS REQUIRED: Keep away from food

*PACKAGING: PASSENGER: PKG. INSTR.: 605, Y605       MAXIMUM QUANTITY: 60 L, 2 L
            CARGO    : PKG. INSTR.: 612             MAXIMUM QUANTITY: 220 L

*SPECIAL PROVISIONS: None

*USES:
      This compound is used in cold-type metal cleaning, in plastic cleaning,
 in vapor degreasing, as a chemical intermediate for vinylidene chloride, in
 aerosols (as a vapor pressure depressant, solvent and carrier), in adhesives
 (as a resin solvent) and as a lubricant carrier to inject graphite, grease
 and other lubricants.  It is used alone and in cutting oil formulations as a
 coolant and lubricant for drilling and tapping alloy and stainless steels.
 It is also used to develop printed circuit boards, in motion picture film
 cleaning, in stain repellants for upholstery fabrics, in wig cleaning, in
 textile processing and finishing and as a solvent in drain cleaners, shoe
 polishes, spot cleaners, insecticide formulations and printing inks.  It is
 also used as a solvent for cleaning precision instruments.

*COMMENTS:
      Inhibitors are generally added to this compound to increase its stability
 [421].


-HANDLING PROCEDURES
 ===================

*ACUTE/CHRONIC HAZARDS:
      This compound is harmful by inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption
 [036,269].  It can be absorbed through the lungs, gastrointestinal tract
 and skin [395].  It is an irritant of the skin, eyes, mucous membranes
 and upper respiratory tract [031,036,269,371].  It may be narcotic in high
 concentrations [031,036,051,058].  It may also cause slight lacrimation
 [371].  When heated to decomposition it emits irritating gases and toxic
 fumes of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen chloride gas, chlorine
 and phosgene [058,102,269,451].

*MINIMUM PROTECTIVE CLOTHING: Not available

*RECOMMENDED GLOVE MATERIALS:
 Permeation Test Results For The Neat (Undiluted) Chemical:
      The permeation test results for the neat (undiluted) chemical are given
 below.  The breakthrough times of this chemical are given for each glove type
 tested.  The table is a presentation of actual test results, not specific
 recommendations or suggestions.  Avoid glove types which exhibit breakthrough
 times of less than the anticipated task time plus an adequate safety factor.
 If this chemical makes direct contact with your glove, or if a tear, puncture
 or hole develops, replace them at once.

 Glove Type                Model Number       Thickness   Breakthrough Time
  Neoprene                 Edmont 29-870       0.51 mm         15 min
  PVA                      Edmont 25-545       0.33 mm        480 min
  Viton                    North F-091         0.25 mm        480 min
  Nitrile                  North LA-1426       0.38 mm         35 min

*RECOMMENDED RESPIRATOR:
      When working with this chemical, wear a NIOSH-approved full face
 chemical cartride respirator equipped with the appropriate organic vapor
 cartridges.  If that is not available, a half face respirator similarly
 equipped plus airtight goggles can be substituted.  However, please note
 that half face respirators provide a substantially lower level of protection
 than do full face respirators.

*OTHER: Not available

*STORAGE PRECAUTIONS:
      You should protect this chemical from exposure to light.  Keep
 the container tightly closed under an inert atmosphere, and store
 under refrigerated temperatures.

*SPILLS AND LEAKAGE:
      If you spill this chemical, FIRST REMOVE ALL SOURCES OF IGNITION.  Then,
 use absorbent paper to pick up all liquid spill material.  Your contaminated
 clothing and absorbent paper should be sealed in a vapor-tight plastic bag for
 eventual disposal.  Solvent wash all contaminated surfaces with 60-70% ethanol
 followed by washing with a soap and water solution.  Do not reenter the
 contaminated area until the Safety Officer (or other responsible person) has
 verified that the area has been properly cleaned.

*DISPOSAL AND WASTE TREATMENT: Not available


-EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
 ====================

*SKIN CONTACT:
      IMMEDIATELY flood affected skin with water while removing and isolating
 all contaminated clothing.  Gently wash all affected skin areas thoroughly
 with soap and water.
      If symptoms such as redness or irritation develop, IMMEDIATELY call a
 physician and be prepared to transport the victim to a hospital for treatment.

*INHALATION:
      IMMEDIATELY leave the contaminated area; take deep breaths of fresh air.
 If symptoms (such as wheezing, coughing, shortness of breath, or burning in
 the mouth, throat, or chest) develop, call a physician and be prepared to
 transport the victim to a hospital.
      Provide proper respiratory protection to rescuers entering an unknown
 atmosphere.  Whenever possible, Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
 should be used; if not available, use a level of protection greater than or
 equal to that advised under Respirator Recommendation.

*EYE CONTACT:
      First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present.  Flush
 victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while
 simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center.
      Do not put any ointments, oils, or medication in the victim's eyes without
 specific instructions from a physician.
      IMMEDIATELY transport the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if
 no symptoms (such as redness or irritation) develop.

*INGESTION:
      DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING.  Volatile chemicals have a high risk of being
 aspirated into the victim's lungs during vomiting which increases the medical
 problems.
      If the victim is conscious and not convulsing, give 1 or 2 glasses of
 water to dilute the chemical and IMMEDIATELY call a hospital or poison control
 center.  IMMEDIATELY transport the victim to a hospital.
      If the victim is convulsing or unconscious, do not give anything by mouth,
 ensure that the victim's airway is open and lay the victim on his/her side with
 the head lower than the body.  DO NOT INDUCE VOMITING.  IMMEDIATELY transport
 the victim to a hospital.

*SYMPTOMS:
      Symptoms of exposure to this compound may include irritation of the
 eyes, dizziness, incoordination, unconsciousness and death [102,346,371].
 Irritation of the mucous membranes and respiratory tract may occur [269].
 Fainting may also occur [295].  Other symptoms may include decreased reaction
 time, impaired manual dexterity, ataxia, lightheadedness, positive Romberg
 test, diarrhea, respiratory arrest and nausea [151].  It causes a proarrhyth-
 mic activity which sensitizes the heart to epinephrine, resulting in cardiac
 arrhythmias [043,151,301,406].  This sometimes will cause cardiac arrest,
 particularly when massive amounts are inhaled [043,051,151].  Inhalation
 can cause euphoria [043,051,151].  High concentrations may cause narcosis
 [031,036,058,406].  Exposure can cause headache, drowsiness, burning sensa-
 tion on the eyes and skin, irritation  of the throat, cardiac sensitization,
 aspiration of vomitus during anesthesia, blood pressure depression, chemical
 pneumonitis and pulmonary edema with hemorrhage [058].  It can also cause
 anesthesia, cardiac fibrillations, slight reddening of the skin, central
 nervous system impairment, helplessness, loss in equilibrium and mild eye
 and nasal discomfort [430].  Other symptoms are hallucinations, distorted
 perceptions, motor activity changes, irritability, aggression, hypermotility
 and other gastrointestinal changes [043].  Impaired judgement has been re-
 ported [451].  Increased reaction time has also been reported [346].  Repeated
 skin contact may result in a dry, scaly and fissured dermatitis due to its
 defatting properties [346,371,421].  Prolonged skin contact may result in
 considerable pain and irritation [430].  Other symptoms may include difficult
 breathing, asphyxiation, slight lacrimation and slight smarting of the eyes
 and respiratory system [371].  It may cause impaired psychophysiological func-
 tions [051,395].  It may also cause irregular heart beat, lassitude and coma
 [102].  High concentrations cause central nervous system depression [051,151,
 301,346].  Hemorrhage in the brain may also result from exposure to high con-
 centrations [301].  Eye contact may lead to superficial and transient injury
 to the eyes [058,099].  It may also lead to mild conjunctivitis [346].  Chronic
 exposure may result in liver and kidney damage [051,151,269,295].  Exposure to
 and/or consumption of alcohol may increase its toxic effects [151,269].


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 =======

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          Industrial Chemicals Covered Under Major Federal Regulatory and
          Advisory Programs.  Roytech Publications, Inc.  Burlingame, CA.
          1990.  Section 3, p. 14.

 [620] United States National Toxicology Program.  Chemical Status Report.
          NTP Chemtrack System.  Research Triangle Park, NC.  November 6, 1990.
          Listed.

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