Fatalities / Deaths
PHARMACOLOGICAL FATALITIES #
Incident: Alex Ryan, Jan 2016, Cork, Ireland
An 18-year-old male became ill after snorting 25I-NBOMe at a house party with 5 other people, he later died of cardiac arrest.
Irish Examiner Reporter. "Alex Ryan (18) died from heart attack after taking 'N-Bomb' drug". IThe Irish Times. Jul 7, 2016.
State Pathologist Dr Margaret Bolster carried out a post mortem on the deceased on the 25th of January at CUH. She told Coroner Philip Comyn that the teenager died of cardiac arrest after taking the drug 251 NBOMe.
Irish Examiner Reporter. " Cork party drug victim Alex Ryan saved four lives". Irish Examiner Reporter. Jan 25, 2016.
[Alex Ryan] was among six people were rushed to hospital after snorting the deadly substance. While the other five were released from hospital, Alex, 18, remained in critical condition until his life support was turned off on Saturday. [...] Gardaí and medical experts initially believed the group had ingested, 2C-B, after some of the party-goers told them that was the drug they thought they had taken. However, the results of toxicology tests, which emerged on Friday, confirmed they had consumed 25I-NBOMe, or N-bomb — a synthetic derivative of the 2C family of drugs.
Incident: Anonymous Male, Sep 2014, Washington State
A 15-year-old male went to a party where he died after ingesting 25I-NBOMe, mushrooms, and cannabis.
Lowe LM, Peterson BL, Couper FJ. "A Case Review of the First Analytically Confirmed 25I-NBOMe-Related Death in Washington State". Journal of Analytical Toxicology. Washington, USA. 2015.
This case was submitted to the Washington State Patrol Toxicology Laboratory in September 2014. A 15-year-old male went to a party where he ingested 25I-NBOMe and mushrooms. A short time later, he started to vomit and began seizing until he eventually passed out. Resuscitation efforts were made, but were unsuccessful. He was transported to a local hospital, where he died three days later of multi-system organ failure following cardiopulmonary arrest. The hospital admission samples were negative for ethanol and basic drugs and their metabolites. The hospital serum confirmed positive for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and carboxy-THC at 4.1 and 83 ng/mL, respectively. On the basis of the case history, the hospital blood and urine were sent to NMS Labs for NBOMe and psilocin confirmation. The blood was positive for 25I-NBOMe, and the urine was positive for 25C-, 25H- and 25I-NBOMe, as well as, psilocin. Antemortem and postmortem blood were also sent to AIT Laboratories for NBOMe confirmation. The antemortem blood confirmed positive for 25I-NBOMe with a concentration of 0.76 ng/mL. The manner of death was ruled an accident as a result of combined 25I-NBOMe and psilocin intoxication.
Incident: Two Anonymous Males, 2014, Indiana
Few details in journal case report about the deaths of "two teenage male subjects" after ingesting 25I and 25B.
Shanks KG, Sozio T, Behonick GS. "Fatal Intoxications with 25B-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe in Indiana During 2014". Journal of Analytical Toxicology. Indianapolis, IN, USA. 2015.
We report the deaths of two teenage male subjects that were related to 25B-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe in Indiana during 2014. Samples were extracted via a solvent protein precipitation with acetonitrile and analyzed via ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. For these two cases, we describe the NBOMe instrumental analysis, toxicological results for postmortem heart blood and urine specimens and the relevant case history and pathological findings at autopsy. In the first case, 25B-NBOMe was detected in postmortem heart blood at 1.59 ng/mL; in the second case, 25I-NBOMe was detected in postmortem heart blood at 19.8 ng/mL. We also review relevant published casework from clinical toxicology and postmortem toxicology in which analytically confirmed 25B-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe were determined to be causative agents in intoxications or deaths.
Incident: Samuel Motsay, May 2014
Samuel Motsay, 16, was found dead near blotter paper containing 25I-NBOMe and reportedly had taken "two".
TheIndyChannel.com Staff. "Designer drug NBOMe connected to death of Center Grove HS student". TheIndyChannel. Indianapolis, IN, USA. May 11, 2014.
On Sunday, Samuel Motsay, 16, was found dead in a home in the 1000 block of Old Eagle Way. [...] Police confirmed Thursday that a substance found on blotter paper near Motsay's body had been identified as an illegal narcotic called 25I NBOMe.
McQuaid R. "Mother of teen who overdosed on NBOME compares drug to 'Russian roulette'. May 26, 2014.
GREENWOOD, Ind. (May 26, 2014) - The mother of a Greenwood teen who overdosed on a new synthetic drug opened up to FOX59 News. [...] The mother and son returned home just before midnight. Within 12 hours, Sam was found dead. [...] Zachary Catron, Kyle Hazzard and Jordan Adamowitz were jailed following Motsay's death. Hazzard and Adamowitz led police to Catron, who admitted making the batch of NBOME that took Motsay's life.
Incident: Tara Fitzgerald, Jan 2014
Tara Fitzgerald, 17, died after taking what she believed to be LSD with a friend on January 11, 2014. Her friend did not die.
Rupar A. "Woodbury teen Tara Fitzgerald's overdose death leads to five murder charges. CityPages.com. Woodbury, MN. May 28, 2014.
After swallowing two small square pieces of pink paper, the two girls took photos and videos of themselves under the influence, according to the criminal complaint. But their trip took a turn for the worse a couple hours later when Fitzgerald started moaning and apparently having muscle spasms. Around 9 a.m., Fitzgerald's mother was summoned to the scene. She called 911, and Fitzgerald was transported to Regions Hospital, where she was pronounced dead. Fitzgerald's friend told police she obtained the LSD-like drug, later determined to be a Schedule 1 Controlled Substance called 25i-NBOMe, from a 17-year-old classmate named Brian Norlander.
Incident: Montana Brown, Dec 2013
Montana Brown died after taking 25I that he thought was LSD.
Chiquillo J. "3 face federal drug charges in Frisco teen's overdose death". Dallas Morning News. Dallas, TX, USA. May 6, 2014.
On Dec. 14, Montana, a freshman at Heritage High School, took what he thought was LSD with his two older brothers and Wagner, who was their friend. It was 25I, a synthetic drug with properties similar to LSD but more potent. He died as a reaction to the substance
Incident: Zachary Taylor Denaro, June 2013
In June 2013, 15-year-old Zachary Denaro died in Boca Raton, FL after using 25I-NBOMe.
Leigh R, Axelbank E. "Bath salts to blame for teen's fatal overdose, Medical Examiner rules". WFLX.com. FL, USA. Oct 9, 2013.
For the first time, law enforcement has linked the death of a 15-year-old Boca Raton boy to a dangerous new drug. Federal agents and the Palm Beach County Sheriff's Office have been investigating the death of Zachary Taylor Denaro since June. He was found along South Ocean Boulevard unconscious on June 13. Authorities say the investigation has produced results. Documents say Denaro overdosed on a drug called 25i-NBOMe, a synthetic drug that often mirrors LSD.
Incident: Krystopher Sansone, 2013
In Feb 2013, 17-year-old Krystopher Sansone died in Orange County, FL after insufflating a powder that has been reported by the media to have been "bath salts", but by the coroner as "NBOMe". Four others were also hospitalized, but recovered. It is not clear whether the substance involved was 25I-NBOMe or another in the NBOMe series.
Orlando Sentinel. "Bath salts to blame for teen's fatal overdose, Medical Examiner rules". Orlando Sentinel. Orlando, FL, USA. Apr 5, 2013.
Garavaglia [Medical Examiner] determined that Sansone died as the result of an accidental, "apparent" overdose to "NBOMe."
Incident: Nick Mitchell, 2012
Nick Mitchell died on Dec 6, 2012. His death was blamed on LSD, but as of August, 2013, the police suspect that it was 25I-NBOMe sold as LSD. No LSD was found in toxicology tests.
Duffy C. "Research Chemical NBOM-E Linked to Drug Deaths of Teenagers Henry Kwan, Nick Mitchell, Preston Bridge". 7 News. Aug 8, 2013.
7.30 can also reveal that police have a strong suspicion the drug caused the death of 15-year-old Nick Mitchell from the Central Coast, who died last December. At the time the death was blamed on LSD. "Unfortunately young Nick Mitchell died as a result of taking a substance, and his friend who survived engaged in quite reckless behaviour," Det Supt Bingham said. "Toxicology reports have since come back that no LSD was involved in Nick Mitchell's death."
Incident: Clayton Otwell, 2012
In October 2012, 21-year-old Clayton Otwell died in New Orleans, LA, after insufflating a drop of 2C-I-NBOMe at a festival. The material was in a liquid of unknown potency. Otwell is said to have been ingesting caffeinated alcoholic drinks for several hours beforehand.
Times-Picayune. "21-year-old dies after one drop of new synthetic drug at Voodoo Fest". Times-Picayune. New Orleans, LA, USA. Nov 1, 2012.
As Newell watched, her friend knelt and the stranger plopped a single drop from a vial into Otwell's nose. Otwell immediately started babbling incoherently, Newell said. She got him to the medical tent at the festival, but within 30 minutes, he had a seizure and never regained consciousness. Taken to Tulane University Hospital, he was placed on life support Saturday night; he died Tuesday.
Incident: Timothy Castaneda, 2012
On October 6, 2012, 17-year-old Timothy Castaneda died in Apex, NC, after reportedly taking two hits of "LSD" at a party. The form of the material was not reported by the press. The state medical examiner found that he had 25I-NBOMe in his system and listed "complications of 25I-NBOMe toxicity" as the cause of death.
News & Observer. "Teen told Apex police that friend bought LSD online". News & Observer. Raleigh, NC, USA. Oct 24, 2012.
The other teens told police that Castaneda had taken two "hits" of LSD about 11 p.m. and soon began "freaking out," [...] The teens said Castaneda's behavior continued until he collapsed shortly before they called 911 nearly three hours later. The state Office of the Chief Medical Examiner in Chapel Hill has not said how Castaneda died. "It's still undetermined at this time," spokeswoman Sharon Artis said Tuesday.
WBC17 Staff. "911 call paints grim scene of Apex teen's possible overdose". WNCN. NC, USA. Oct 17, 2012.
"He's having a seizure." The 911 operator urged the caller to be calm and asked for details about what had happened while emergency responders were on the way. The caller said Castaneda "was foaming at the mouth" at one point. At another point, the caller described blood coming out Castaneda's mouth. [...] Castaneda started to have spasms, according to the caller, and the operator continued to urge the caller not to get too excited.
WNCN Staff. "Apex teen died after taking 'N-bomb,' not LSD". WNCN. Sep 9, 2013.
An Apex teen who died in 2012 after taking what friends said were two hits of LSD had the designer drug "N-bomb" in his system. A report by the state medical examiner lists "complications of 25I-NBOMe toxicity" as the cause of death of Timothy Castaneda.
Incident: Stephanie Chappell Hobson, 2012
In July 2012, 25-year-old Stephanie Chappell Hobson died in North Carolina, USA, reportedly after consuming 25I-NBOMe with her boyfriend. The material was in "pill" form, so dosage is unknown. However analysis of the pills suposedly found that they did contain "25i" (Another name used for 25I-NBOMe). Hobson died more than 12 hours after taking the substance.
WECT6. "Man arrested in connection to death of girlfriend". WECT6. Wilmington, NC, USA. Aug 20, 2012.
Analysis of the pills found at the Tesla Park apartment confirmed they are the hallucinogenic drug 25i. Leutgens was impaired when his girlfriend experienced problems with the drug. David said the suspect called other drug dealers before calling 911, which created a delay in the emergency care she needed.
StarNewsOnline. "Friend charged in woman's fatal overdose". StarNewsOnline. Wilmington, NC, USA. Aug 20, 2012.
Stephanie Chappell Hobson, 25, languished for 12 hours July 18 after taking a synthetic drug provided to her by her boyfriend Jeremy Leutgens, said District Attorney Ben David. In that half a day Leutgens reached out to other users of 25i, a potent hallucinogen outlawed by federal law but not by North Carolina, for advice on what to do, David said.
Incident: Elijah Stai, 2012
On June 12 2012, 17-year-old Elijah Stai died in Minnesota, USA after consuming 25I-NBOMe which he reportedly thought was a mushroom extract. Reportedly he and a few friends mixed the chemical with melted chocolate and ate them. He exhibited significant serious negative physical effects before "passing out, never to wake again". Some news reports have been incorrectly referring to 2C-I-NBOMe "2C-I", which is a different chemical.
CityPages. "Adam Budge, 18, charged with murder following friend's synthetic drug overdose". CityPages. Park Rapids, MN, USA. June 21, 2012.
An hour later, Stai began "freaking out" and acting as if he were "possessed," foaming at the mouth, hyperventilating, and smashing his head against the ground. Budge and other buddy laid Stai down in a bed and placed a wet towel on his head to cool him down. By 1:30 in the morning, Stai was no longer breathing.
Inforum. "18-year-old charged with murder after Park Rapids teen dies from drug overdose". Inforum. Fargo-Moorhead, USA. June 20, 2012.
Police recovered a small baggie containing chocolate from Stai's pocket and Adam Budge gave police an empty baggie labeled "25iNBOMe," which were sent to the Minnesota Bureau of Criminal Apprehension. Forensic scientist Amy Granlund identified that the psychedelic substance was indeed "25i-NBMOe," otherwise known as 2C-I.
Incident: Christian Bjerk, 2012
On June 11 2012, 18-year-old Christian Bjerk died in Minnesota, USA after consuming 25I-NBOMe. He was found dead on a sidewalk in Grand Forks. The chemical was reportedly bought by a friend of Bjerk from Adam Budge, the same source in Elijah Stai's death.
Inforum. "Grand Forks man appears on drug charges in Fargo". Inforum. Fargo-Moorhead, USA. August 7, 2012.
Christian Bjerk was 18 when he was found dead early on June 11 along a city street after ingesting a hallucinogen that investigators say originated with Spofford.
BEHAVIORAL FATALITIES #
Incident: Russell Alonzo, Apr 2013 #
Russell Alonzo, 20, died after falling seven stories.
Ingles J. "Spring Hill mother warning parents of dangerous designer drug, 25i, that led to son's death in Tampa". WPTV 5. Tampa, Florida. Apr 23, 2014.
Russell Alonzo, 20, of Spring Hill died April 5, 2013, after falling seven stories to his death at the Malibu USF Apartments [...] The LSD-like drug Russell ingested is the latest trend in psychedelic drugs. It goes by the name 25i, Nbome or Smiles. [...] Russell's mother told ABC Action News her son was found without his shirt or shoes.
Incident: Henry Kwan, 2013 #
Henry Kwan, 17, jumped to his death from a third floor balcony after ingesting 25I-NBOMe. The substance was sold as LSD. The identity of the drug was confirmed in August 2013.
- Photo of Sydney Morning Herald Front Page News Story about NBOMe-Related Death
- Photo of My Sydney Front Page News Story about NBOMe-Related Death
Duffy C. "Research Chemical NBOM-E Linked to Drug Deaths of Teenagers Henry Kwan, Nick Mitchell, Preston Bridge". 7 News. Aug 8, 2013.
We know [it was] one of the NBOM-e products," Detective Superintendent Bingham told 7:30. There's several of them - 25b, 25c, 25i - [they] seem to be the most popular products. I believe it was a 25i product that Henry ingested. And it was sold to him as LSD, not as NBOM-e."
Ralston N, Davies L. "Teen jumps to his death after $1.50 drug hit". Sydney Morning Herald Jun 7, 2013.
"Henry Kwan is understood to have allegedly bought the substance from a classmate at Killara High School on the belief it was LSD and then ingested it on Wednesday afternoon. [...] The teenager then was involved in a tense standoff with his mother and sister on the balcony of the family's Killara Avenue apartment, which drew neighbours outside to see the commotion. His mother and sister then tried desperately to stop him as shocked neighbours watched on as he jumped from the third floor balcony to his death. An ambulance arrived a short time later but Henry could not be revived."
Incident: Anonymous male, 2012
In March 2012, a man in South Australia reportedly died after consuming 2C-I-NBOMe and 2C-B-NBOMe. He died from injuries sustained while running into objects such as trees and power poles. There is little data about the identity of the individual or the exact cause of death.
AdelaideNow. "Death and overdoses blamed on emerging drugs". AdelaideNow. Adelaide Australia. Sep 12, 2012.
The two drug types - known as 25B-NBOMe and 25I-NBOMe - were responsible for the death of a man in the Mid North in March, who died from injuries sustained after running into fixed objects, trees and Stobie poles as a result of an overdose.
None known. (unconfirmed)
MURDERS / HOMICIDES #
None known. (unconfirmed)
It is extremely difficult to determine an LD50 for a drug in humans. LD50s are only ever experimentally determined in animals, and extrapolations from one species to another for lethal dose are notoriously unreliable. With a new drug like 2C-I-NBOMe, there often isn't any animal data to extrapolate from.