Synthesis and Effects of PCP Analogs
A review by John
compounds described in this article are powerful drugs. As with
any drug, they should not be ingested without full understanding
of their potential effects. More so than other recreational drugs,
these compounds have the potential to produce dangerously disoriented
states of consciousness. The synthetic procedures presented here
are given for informational purposes only. Some of the steps presented
are potentially dangerous for novice or under equipped chemists,
and some of the compounds described are scheduled drugs, and therefore
illegal to manufacture without proper licensing.
Section I. Background information:
Section II. Known methods for synthesis
of PCP analogs:
- Structure of PCP and its analogs.
of other compounds with PCP-like
- Historical background of PCP.
use and pharmacology.
use and subjective effects.
overview of methods:
- Methods I-III. Commonly used routes:
- Method I: Use
of nitrile intermediates such as PCC:
- Overview of the two steps
in the reaction scheme.
- Step 1. Synthesis of PCC-
two possible methods.
- Step 2. Reaction of
PCC with a Grignard reagent.
- Method II:
Use of enamine intermediates:
- General description
and reaction scheme.
- Details of the synthesis
of PCP via an enamine.
- Method III: Use
of imine intermediates:
- Overview of reaction.
- Example: Synthesis
of PCE, the N-ethyl analog of PCP.
- Methods IV-VI. Use of PCA (1-phenyl-cyclohexylamine) intermediate:
- Method IV:
Use of an azide intermediate:
PCA via PCOH (1-phenyl-1-cyclohexanol).
- Method V: The
PCA from PCOH or 1-phenylcyclohexene.
- Method VI:
Use of phenylacetonitrile:
Formation of the cyclohexane ring by alkylation and hydrolysis/rearrangement
- Method VII: Use of N-benzoyl piperidine:
Reaction with organometallic derivative of 1,5-dibromopentane
to produce PCP.
Section III. Synthesis of PCP precursors:
by the oxidation of cyclohexanol.
by reduction of pyridine.
Section IV. Synthesis of ketamine:
- Overview of synthesis:
Section V. Structure-Activity Relationships
(SAR) of PCP analogs:
biological evaluation of analogs.
modifications of PCP:
- Alterations to the piperidine
- Non cyclic alkyl substituents.
- Cyclic alkylamines.
- Alterations to the aromatic
- Addition of substituents to the phenyl ring.
- Replacements of phenyl by other aromatic rings.
- Alterations to the cyclohexane
- Changes in ring size.
- Addition of substituents.
Section VI. Recent Research on PCP
analogs that bind to a novel site on the dopamine transporter.
relationship to PCP pharmacology.
analogs with analgesic potential.