I; at. wt 126.9045; at. no. 53; valences 1 to 7 (usually monovalent); elemental state: I2. A halogen. Abundance in igneous rocks: 3x10-5% by wt; in seawater 5x10-8% by wt. Natural isotope: 127 (100%); isotopes range in mass number from 117 to 139; radioactive tracer elements: 124, 125, 128, 131, 132. Discovered in 1811 by Courtois. Classed among the rarer elements. Extracted from Chilean nitrate-bearing earth (caliche) and from seaweed. Prepn of ultra-pure iodine for research purposes according to the equation 2KI + CuSO4·5H2O → CuI + K2SO4 + ½ I2 + 5H2O: Schmeisser in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 1, G. Brauer, Ed. (Academic Press, New York, 2nd ed., 1963) p 275. Reviews: MTP Int. Rev. Sci.: Inorg. Chem., Ser. One, Vol. 3, V. Gutmann, Ed. (Butterworths, London, 1972); Downs, Adams, "Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine and Astatine" in Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry vol. 2, J. C. Bailar, Jr. et al., Eds. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1973) p 1107-1594; C. J. Mazac in Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology vol. 13 (Wiley-Interscience, New York, 3rd ed., 1981) pp 649-677.
0.0013 moles/l with negligible formation of HOI (6.4x10-6 moles/l); freely sol in aq solns of HI or iodides.
Soly in organic solvents (g I2/100 g soln, 25°C):
benzene 14.09; CS2 16.47; ethanol 21.43; ethyl ether 25.20; cyclohexane 2.719; CCl4 (35°C) 2.603: Hildebrand, Jenks, J. Am. Chem Soc. 42, 2180 (1920); Hildebrand et al., ibid. 72, 1017 (1950); sol in chloroform, glacial acetic acid, glycerol oils.
Solutions of iodine in aq solns of inorganic iodides are brown or deep brown, depending on the concentration of the iodine. Solvents contg nitrogen atoms, such as pyridine, amines, or quinoline dissolve iodine to form brown solns. Chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, carbon disulfide, and especially phosphorus trichloride give violet solns. The violet color is also given by fluorinated amines. The soly in water is also increased by alkali bromides, but decreased by sulfates and nitrates. Less reactive than bromine; E°(aq) ½ I2/I- 0.535 V dissociation energy (25°C): 36.115 kcal. Iodine stains may be removed with sodium thiosulfate soln or ammoniated alc. Incompat: alkaloids, starch, tannins.
4.93 (solid, 25°C)
Potential symptoms of overexposure are irritation of eyes and nose; lacrimation; headache; tight chest; skin burns, rash; cutaneous hypersensitivity. See NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards (DHHS/NIOSH 90-117, 1990) p 128. Ingestion of large quantities causes abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea due to the highly corrosive action of iodine on the GI tract. See Clinical Toxicology of Commercial Products, R. E. Gosselin et al., Eds. (Williams Wilkins, Baltimore, 5th ed., 1984) Sect. III, pp 213-214.
Manuf iodine compds, germicides, antiseptics. To reduce friction of hard surfaces, including stainless steel and glass. Catalyst in the alkylation and condensation of aromatic amines; in sulfations and sulfonations. Artificial isotopes of iodine are used in biological, biochemical and chemical structure research. Important reagent in analytical chemistry.
Antihyperthyroid; Anti-infective (topical).
Therap. Cat. (Veterinary):
Internally for goiter, hypothyroidism, in iodine deficiency. Topically as antiseptic, disinfectant, counterirritant and to promote absorption.