Juniapa. Hinojo Sabalero
Piper auritum H. B. K.
Juniapa, Piper auritum
Grows wild in abundance in open areas in tropical Central and Southern America. Has teen cultivated in Mexico, Vera Cruz State in trial plots by the Institute Nacional de Investigaciones Sobre Recursos Bioticos.
MAJOR PRODUCING COUNTRIES
Panama and Brazil. No commercial production reported
YIELD AND DESCRIPTION
On steam distillation leaves give a mobile clear liquid with a characteristic odour of "root beer". Yield of oil has been reported at 0.17% with a safrole content of 70% (Gupta).
As an alternative to sassafras oil or as a source of essential oil containing Safrole, the chemical raw material for the manufacture of Heliotropin (Fragrance material) and Piperonyl Butoxide (Pyrethum synergist).
In Panama it is used as a food condiment and as a fish bait (Joly). In Mexico it is used as a house plant because of the heart shaped colourful leaves.
II. AGRICULTURAL ASPECTS
Natural cultivation as secondary vegetation after clearing the high perennial evergreen forest.
III. POST HARVEST TREATMENT, PRESERVATION, STORAGE
Wilting prior to distillation is required
In good quality drums
By hydrodistillation of the dried herb. Water/steam or steam distillation is satisfactory. The temperature of the condensate is critical as emulsion or top/bottom separation can result.
The sun dried exhausted herb can be utilized as a fuel.
COMPOSITION OF OIL
Safrole up to 90%
Forty components have been identified (Gupta)
There is no identifiable information for the following areas: PROCESSING, oil extraction, equipment and nomenclature of products.
GUPTA, MAHABIR P., ARIAS, TOMAS D., "Safrole, The Main Component of the essential oil from Piper auritum of Panama". "Journal of Natural Products" Vol 43 no 2 Mar -Apr pp 3303431.
JOLY, L.G. "Feeding and Trapping Fish with Piper auritum". "Economic Botany 1981 Vol 35 No 4 pp 383-390
Part III - Minor essential oil crops - III. Individual
monographs - 3.8 Juniapa-hinojo sabalero
"Minor oil crops" (Part I - Edible oils, Part II - Non-edible oils, Part III - Essential oils)
FAO AGRICULTURAL SERVICES BULLETIN No. 94
FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONS, Rome, 1992
prepared by B.L. Axtell from research by R.M. Fairman
Intermediate Technology Development Group, Rugby, UK
M-17, ISBN 92-5-103128-2, (c) FAO 1992