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Erowid References Database

Hansen G, Jensen SB, Chandresh L, Hilden T. 
“The psychotropic effect of ketamine”. 
J Psychoactive Drugs. 1988 Oct-Dec 02;20(4):419-25.
Abstract
Ketamine, a drug used for intravenous (ID and intramuscular (IM) anesthesla" was originally intoduced into clinical usage in 1970. It is in widespread use worldwide and is considered to be an extremely safe anesthetic because it does not cause circulatory or respiraory depression. Ketamine's action is analgesic and anesthetic, withoutbeing hypnotic as normally construed. Its action is presumed to result from selective inhibition of associative pathways connecting the thalamoneocortical and limbic systems as well as from selective inhibition and stimulation in these two systems, respectively. The resulting state has been termed "dissociative anesthesia." A survey of the literature by White, Way and Trevor (1982) contained an update on the drug's pharmacology. Ketamine is recommended for use with children and with patients in generally poor health. During the past few years, ketamine has replaced ether as the anesthetic of choice of the Danish military health corps, especially for use in frontline zones (Gronfeldt 1983).
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