Erowid
 
 
Plants - Drugs Mind - Spirit Freedom - Law Arts - Culture Library  
Path :   psychoactiveshealth
Alexander Shulgin -- Memorial Gathering
August 2nd, 1pm-6pm, Berkeley CA

Material Safety Data Sheets

Psychoactive LD50s

LD50 - The dose that has been determined to be lethal to 50% of the test population.

LD50s for Various Substances
(with ratios regarding relative safety/toxicity)
SubstanceLD50routeanimalTypical
Human Dose
Alcohol (Ethyl)10.6 g/kgoyoung rats 
7.06 g/kgoold rats 
AMT38 mg/kg3ipmouse 
22 mg/kg3orat 
Caffeine127 mg/Kgomice (male)100-200 mg o
192 mg/Kgorat 
260 mg/Kgiprat 
105 mg/Kgivrat 
137 mg/Kgomice (female) 
230 mg/Kgohamster(male) 
249 mg/Kgohamster(female) 
355 mg/Kgorat(male) 
247 mg/Kgorat(female) 
246 mg/Kgorabbit(male) 
227 mg/Kgorabbit(female) 
140 mg/Kgodog 
Cocaine95.1 mg/kg4ipmouse 
DET28 mg/kgivmouse60 mg im/po
DIPT26 mg/kgivmouse30 mg o
DMT110 mg/kgimmouse60 mg im
5-MeO-DMT115 mg/kgipmouse6 mg p
DPT20 mg/kgivmouse60 mg po
Sodium-GHB2,000 mg/kgipmale rats 
1,650 mg/kgipfemale rats 
Ibogaine82 mg/kg2ipguinea pig 
145 mg/kg2iprat 
Ketamine77 mg/kgivmouse 
400 mg / kgipmouse 
LSD46 mg/Kgivmice0.25 mg o
16.5 mg/Kgivrats 
.3 mg/Kgivrabbits 
MDA92 mg/kg5ipmouse 
MDMA350 mg/kg5oralrats 
106 mg/kg5ipmouse 
Mescaline370 mg/kgorats 
Nicotine230 mg/Kgomice 
50 mg/Kgorats 
9.5 mg/Kgipmice.7 mg(smoked)
.3 mg/Kgivmice 
Psilocybin285 mg/Kgivmice12-20 mg o
280 mg/Kgivrats 
12.5 mg/Kgivrabbit 
THC1270 mg/Kgorats(male)20 mg o
730 mg/Kgorats(female)20 mg o
105.7 mg/Kgivrats5 mg(smoked)
42 mg/Kg(inhalation)rats5 mg(smoked)
Aspirin 1100 mg/Kgomice325 mg o
1500 mg/Kgorats 
Acetaminophen/paracetamol338 mg/Kgomice500 mg o
500 mg/Kgipmice 
Vitamin A2570 mg/Kgomice10-20 mg o
1510 mg/Kgipmice 
Strychnine.96 mg/Kgivrats 
   
Succinyl Choline.45 mg/Kgiv
VX (nerve gas).0154 mg/Kgivrabbits0 mg


Abbreviations:

iv = intravenous (injected into vein)
ip = intraperitoneal (injected into body cavity)
im = intramuscular (injected into muscles)
o=oral (swallowed or eaten)
p=parenteral (not by mouth / usually means 'inhaled' or 'snorted')
mg/Kg = milligrams of drug per Kilogram of body weight
mg = milligrams of drug


Example acute oral LD50s (rat): Example LD50 (mg/kg) Citric acid (solid) 3,000 10% Citric acid Soln. 30,000 Acetone 5,800 Benzoic acid 1,700 Caffeine 192


NOTES:

The "LD50" is the dose of a substance that will kill a selected species of experimental animal 50% of the time.

All LD50's are normalized to milligrams/Kilogram of animal's body weight.

"Typical Human Dose" info is taken from various sources, including "Burger's Medicinal Chemistry", "Journal of Psychedelic Drugs", "The Merck Manual", "NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances", cigarette packages, No-Doz bottles, etc.

One might well argue that it is of questionable utility to compare toxic responses between various species using different routes of administration. Needless to say, many rodents have died for our sins.

It was later pointed out that what is called above a "safety ratio" is roughly equivalent to the pharmacological measure known as the "Therapeutic Index". The therapeutic index is a measure of the toxicity of a drug relative to it's usual therapeutic dose.

The NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances also lists most published LD50 measurements, but does so uncritically. It's quite useful as a point of reference.


REFERENCES:

  1. Unless otherwise marked, all LD50 data were found in the "The Merck Index, 11th edition".

  2. Goutarel R, Gollnhofer O, Sillans R. "Pharmacodynamics and Therapeutic Applications of Iboga and Ibogaine." Psychedelic Monographs and Essays #6. Ed. Thomas Little. Pompano Beach: PM & E Publishing Group, 1993. 70-111.

  3. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 4, 547 (1962)

  4. Bedford JA, Turner CE, Elsohly HN. "Comparative lethality of coca and cocaine." Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1982 Nov; 17(5):1087-8

  5. U.S. Dept of Justice - DEA. MDMA Scheduling Hearings with Francis L. Young, Administrative Law Judge. [full text].