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Ayahuasca: alkaloids, plants & analogs
assembled by Keeper of the Trout
Section 3 : Part 3 :
Purported traditional ayahuasca admixtures :
Summary by species

Plants associated with ayahuasca or ayahuasca analogs
(including some species associated with Jurema)
(Additional details about some of the modern analog admixtures are included elsewhere in this book.)

While many plants exist that theoretically could be used, only those known have been successfully used by humans for making ayahuasca analogs are included. This list is steadily growing. It should be stressed that many of the potential admixture plants are very low alkaloid and/or contain other, toxic, components. The intention was to include only those modern analog plants that have been reported as serving safely and effectively.

Use of the phrase "requires diet" indicates a very powerful, and potentially dangerous, plant which requires a specialized diet for it to be effective and to avoid harm to the practitioner. Most are used for learning purposes as direct teachers of medicine.

The diet is prescribed by the plant spirit and should not be confused with dietary restrictions associated with MAOI use.

While such diets are sometimes thought of in this light due to their overall bland nature, items such as plantains which are quite commonly permitted in these diets are strongly and specifically contraindicated for combination with prescription MAOIs.

The intent and purpose behind these magical diets are of a spiritual and phytoeducational nature not of western pharmacological rationales.



Abuta grandifolia (Mart.) Sandwith [Menispermaceae] Used by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b.


Acacia maidenii [0.36% was reported in dry stem-bark but most seem to be substantially lower.] Effective reports are said to exist using the stembark but reports of low alkaloid material also exists. Roots are apparently unevaluated; Johnny's tlc of the roots looked better than stems, showing MMT and DMT; the MMT somewhat the stronger.


Acacia obtusifolia [No formal analysis reported.] Effective reports exist using alkaloid isolated from the bark. Roots are said to be effective also. See Trout's Notes on Acacia or Trout's Notes on Some Simple Tryptamines. Second edition for more details.


Acacia phlebophylla [0.3% reported in dry leaves] Ott 1994 describes an effective bioassay using 20 grams of the dried leaves.

Acacia piauhyensis Benth Potential vinho da jurema admixture known as jurema branca. Ott 1995 Chemistry unevaluated.

Acacia species. Acacia confusa, Acacia obtusifolia, Acacia simplicifolia and no doubt others not yet analyzed can certainly work but presently lack reports of use in ayahuasca or analogs (It is certain that this has occurred in Australia, in the case of A. maidenii, A. obtusifolia & A. phlebophylla, but was never formally published [Note 3].)

See comments elsewhere here on these 3 species.


Alchornea castaneifolia (Willd.) Juss. [Euphorbiaceae] Known admixture reported by Prance & Kallunki 1984; Ott 1994. Used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984a and Luna 1984b. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b; as did Ott 1994 also citing Luna 1984a. Used medicinally by Tikuna in Colombia; Schultes & Raffauf 1986.


Alchornea floribunda andAlchornea hirtella are used as excitants and hallucinogens in equatorial Africa. Bianchi & Samorini 1993.


Alternanthera Lehmanii Hieronymus [Amaranthaceae] Use as admixture by Kofán in Colombian Putumayo was reported by Garcia-Barriga 1958. Pinkley 1969 did not observe it used by the Kofáns on Río Aquarico in Ecuador. Additive used in Colombian Putumayo; Schultes 1972a cited Bristol 1966, Garcia-Barriga 1958 and Schultes 1957. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Garcia-Barriga 1958. Ott 1994 cited Garcia-Barriga 1958 and Schultes 1957. Occasional admixture: Bristol 1966 cited Schultes 1957. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Schultes 1972c, Pinkley 1969 and Soukup 1970.


Anadenanthera species have surprisingly not yet been reliably reported in ayahuasca preparations. [Unsubstantiated rumors/claims exist but thusfar do not include details or references.]


Anthodiscus pilosus Ducke [Caryocaraceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and Ott 1994 cited McKenna et al. 1986. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b.


Aristolochia sp. An incorrect guess as to the identity of the ayahuasca being studied; entered into the literature by Fischer-Cárdeñas.


Arundo donax [Graminae] Listed as a traditional ayahuasca admixture by Rätsch 1998. (Possibly erroneous? We are unable to find a supporting reference.)


Banisteriopsis species: See under separate MAOI source list earlier.


Banisteriopsis Cabrerana Cuatrecasas [= Diplopterys cabrerana (Cuatr.) B.Gates][Malpighiaceae]


Bauhinia guianensis Aublet [Leguminosae] Ott 1994 cited Luna & Amaringo 1991. Plant is ornamental and used medicinally; Duke & Vasquez M. 1994.


Brugmansia sp. [Solanaceae] Leaves added by some groups in southern Colombia and Ecuador. Schultes 1972c cited Schultes 1957. Used as admixture by Shuar. Ott 1994 cited Schultes and Hofmann 1980 and Schultes & Raffauf 1990. Not identified but said to be used by the Siona-Secoya similarly to Brugmansia x insignis Vickers & Plowman 1984
Brugmansia is used as its steamed pith by the Matsigenka but they regard the leaves, seeds and flowers as dangerous. Shepard 1998


Brugmansia X insignis (B. Rodr.) Lockwood ex R.E. Schultes [Solanaceae] Used by Secoya in eastern Ecuador to prepare a potent and potentially lethal hallucinogenic [delirient] drink used in shamanic training and practice. They also use it as an ayahuasca admixture in the form of ashes resulting from burning the leaves in a pot. The ashes are then pounded before adding them to the Banisteriopsis drink. Vickers & Plowman 1984. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and Ott 1994 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990.


Brugmansia suaveolens (H. & B.) Berchtold & Presl [Solanaceae] Additive used by Siona in Colombian Putumayo; Schultes 1972a cited Bristol 1966, Pinkley 1969 and Schultes 1957. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and Ott 1994 cited Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Ott 1994 also cited Dobkin de Rios 1970b, Luna 1984a and Luna 1984b. May also be taken alone to learn medicine; Luna 1984b. Used as admixture by Sharanahua in Peru. Ott 1994 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990 Used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984a and Luna 1984b. Known admixture. Schultes 1972a. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b, Schultes 1972c, Schultes 1979c, and Pinkley 1969.


Brunfelsia spp. [Solanaceae] Several species are used by Kofan and Jivaro of Colombia and Ecuador; Schultes 1972c cited Schultes 1972a. Occasional additive, possibly also used alone; Schultes 1972a cited Pinkley 1969 and Schultes 1967. Reported as admixture by Friedberg 1965 (lacking vouchers); Pinkley 1969. Considered a subclass of yajé agua by the Siona. Langdon 1986


Brunfelsia effects are said to range from "a few minutes of giddiness and tingling sensations in the fingers, several hours of painful needle-like prickling in the hands and feet, or several days of incapacitation and even convulsions or coma" depending on the dose. It is believed to improve eyesight, steadiness of hands, concentration & stamina; AFTER the person has recovered from its effects. Shepard 1998

Brunfelsia chiricaspi Plowman [Solanaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993: Schultes & Raffauf 1990. Ott 1994 cited Plowman 1977. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b, Plowman 1977, Schultes 1972c.


Brunfelsia grandiflora D. Don [Solanaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 citing Schultes and Hofmann 1983. Ott 1994 cited Plowman 1977 and Schultes & Raffauf 1990. Also Fericgla 1997.


Brunfelsia grandiflora D.Don subsp. schultesii Pl. [Solanaceae] Known admixture reported by Prance & Kallunki 1984; Ott 1994. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984b. Ott 1994 also cited Pinkley 1969, Plowman 1977 and Schultes & Raffauf 1990. Used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b. May also be taken alone to learn medicine; Luna 1984b. Cold water bark infusion is believed to be used by Siona-Secoya as either a a narcotic or a hallucinogen. Vickers & Plowman 1984


Brunfelsia hopeana Benth. Juice is used in preparation of curupá by the Cambébas. Known as manacá. Wassen 1967.


Brunfelsia tastevinii [Solanaceae] Suspected as direct source of a hallucinogenic drink (Kachinua of Brazil); Schultes 1972c


Brunfelsia uniflora (Pohl.) Don. Used as occasional admixture to vinho da jurema. Ott 1995


Cabi paraensis Ducke [= Callaeum antifebrile (Griseb.) Johnson ] [Malpighiaceae] See above in MAOI source-plant list.


Cabomba aquatica Aubl. [Nymphaeaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993: Luna 1984b. Ott 1994 cited McKenna et al. 1986. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b and Soukup 1970.


Caesalpinia echinata Lamarck [Leguminosae] Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984a. Bark is used as ayahuasca admixture; Luna 1984a citing Villarejo 1979, page 101 ss.

[An interesting note made by Siri Von Reis Altschul 1967a concerned the common name of "Tara huillca" being applied to Anadenanthera colubrina while "Tara" was used for Caesalpinia tinctoria.

Unpublished tlc of Caesalpinia gillesii and C. pulcherrima [The latter is a plant held to be especially sacred to Shiva.] showed the suspected presence of DMT and/or 5-MeO-DMT in flowers, flower-buds, stem and roots. Inflorescences were particularly heavy with assorted Xanthydrol reactive materials. tlc by Johnny Appleseed. [Seed grown or commercial plants. Co-tlc with known standards/ color with Xanthydrol spray.]

Schultes & Hofmann 1980 li. 327, mentions that the first Chinese herbal, the Pen-ts'ao ching, says of Caesalpinia separia: the flowers "could enable one to see spirits and, when taken in excess, cause one to stagger madly. If taken over a prolonged period, they produce somatic levitation and effect communication with spirits." Seeds said to be burned similar to henbane for summoning spirits. They cited Li 1977.]


Calathea veitchiana Veitch ex Hooker fil. [Marantaceae] Admixture plant considered "a type of yajé" by Chiriare on Rio Nanay (Amazonian Peru). It is added "to see visions"; Schultes 1983b, Schultes 1983c, Schultes 1972a and Schultes 1972c: the latter cited Schultes 1972a. Schultes 1983b cited Plowman & Tina (collectors of vouched material) Considered as a species of yajé in Iquitos area. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 citing Schultes 1983. Ott 1994 cited Schultes 1972a. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Schultes 1972c.


Calathea altissima (P. & E.) Koernicke and Calathea cyclophora Baker are both used medicinally but neither has been mentioned as being incorporated into ayahuasca. Schultes 1983c.


Calliandra angustifolia Spruce ex Bentham [Leguminosae] Ott 1994 and Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b. McKenna et al. 1986 cited López Guillen & De Cornelio 1974b and Luna 1984b. Ott was told by a Shuar ayahuascero that Calliandra bark was added to ayahuasca interchangeably with chacruna; p. 31 in Ott 1994 See also Schultes & Raffauf 1990. Used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b citing Soukop 1970. Said to be cultivated for purely ornamental purposes by the Kofán. Schultes 1983c.

[Von Reis Altschul 1967a mentions a Guatemalan herbarium voucher of Calliandra calothyris [sic; C. calothrysus] being labeled "yaje" but there is no report of its application for this purpose. Also in von Reis Altschul 1975]


Calliandra antifebrile (Gris.) Johnson [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 citing Luna 1984b.


Calliandra pentandra Said to be an active ayahuasca additive. Sole alkaloid detected was tetrahydroharmine; Shulgin & Shulgin 1997 pages 586 and 712. The strong presence of DMT is indicated in Fericgla 1994 but this is based on his bioassay of a Shuar drink prepared with this as the admixture. While this is an important observation, it is still in need of analytical work. [Calliandra anomala is given as a synonym in Rätsch 1998]


Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) Hooker fil. ex Schumann [Rubiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 citing Luna 1984b. Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984a. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b. Leaf and Bark used medicinally in Peru; Schultes 1977b. Bark is used as ayahuasca admixture; Luna 1984a citing Villarejo 1979, page 101 ss. Bark is used medicinally by Tikuna in Colombia; Schultes 1983c.


Campsiandra laurifolia Bentham [Leguminosae] Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984a. Bark is used as ayahuasca admixture; Luna 1984a citing Villarejo 1979, page 101 ss.


Capirona decorticans Spruce [Rubiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984b. Bark and leaf used medicinally by Chácobo living at Alto Ivón, Beni, Bolivia. Boom 1987. Used as ayahuasca admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b citing Williams 1936.


Capsicum chinense Jacq.: Used by the wife of Waorani shamans to bring them out of Banisteriopsis muricata intoxication. Davis & Yost 1983a and 1983b.


Capsicum sp. [Solanaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 & Ott 1994 cited Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Ott also cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990.


Carludovica divergens Ducke [Cyclanthaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b. Ott 1994 cited Luna 1994a. Bark is used as ayahuasca admixture; Luna 1984a citing Villarejo 1979, page 101 ss.


Cavanillesia hylogeiton Ulb. [Bombacaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 citing McKenna et al. 1986. Ott 1994 cited Luna & Amaringo 1991. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b and López Guillén & De Cornelio 1974.


Cavanillesia umbellata Ruíz & Pavón [Bombacaceae] Ott 1994 cited Luna & Amaringo 1991.


Cedrelinga catenaeformis Ducke [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993, McKenna et al. 1986 and Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984b. Used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b citing Soukop 1970. Requires diet.


Ceiba pentandra Gaert. [Bombacaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993, McKenna et al. 1986 and Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984b. Tentative identification of a plant used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b.


Chorisia insignis Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth [Bombacaceae] Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984b. Bark is used as ayahuasca admixture; Luna 1984a citing Villarejo 1979, page 101 ss.


Chorisia speciosa [Bombacaceae] Ott 1994 cited McKenna et al. 1986. Bianchi & Samorini 1993cited Luna 1986c.


Clusia sp. [Guttiferae] Reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969. Ayahuasca admixture used among Kulina and Sharanahua in Amazonian Peru; Schultes 1972a cited Reinberg 1921 but meant Rivier & Lindgren 1972 or Pinkley 1969. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969. Ott 1994 cited Rivier & Lindgren and Schultes & Raffauf 1990. Schultes 1972c cited Rivier & Lindgren 1972.


Codonanthopsis sp. [Gesneriaceae]: "kosharishi" Used as a baby bath for protection from a malevolent monkey spirit. Russo et al. 1996-1997 Unclear if actually used in ayahuasca.


Composoneura sprucei: Infusion consumed as an emetic, by Secoya-Siona, prior to drinking ayahuasca. Schultes & Raffauf 1990


Cornutia odorata (Poepp. & Endl.) Poeppig [Verbenaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 citing McKenna et al. 1986. Ott 1994 cited McKenna et al. 1984a. McKenna et al. 1986 cited McKenna et al. 1984a and Soukup 1970.

Couroupita guianensis Aubl. [Lecythidaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b; as did Ott 1994 also citing Luna 1984a. Used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984a and Luna 1984b. Requires diet.


Coussapoa tessmannii Mildbr. [Moraceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b. Ott 1994 cited McKenna et al. 1986.


Croton sp. [Euphorbiaceae] Listed as a traditional ayahuasca admixture by Rätsch 1998. (Unable to find a supporting reference.)


Cyperus spp. [Cyperaceae] Reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969. Admixture used among Kulina and Sharanahua in Amazonian Peru; Schultes 1972a cited Reinberg 1921 but meant Rivier & Lindgren 1972 or Pinkley 1969 Schultes 1972c cited Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969; as did Ott 1994 also citing McKenna et al. 1986. (All pharmacological activity believed due to presence of the fungal endophyte Balansia cyperi) Information on Balansia cyperi; See Plowman et al. 1990 and Lewis & Elvin-Lewis 1990.
Various types are recognized; McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b.


Cyperus species: "Dozens" of varieties are cultivated by the Matsigenka; each with a specific use. Shepard 1998


Cyperus digitatus Roxb. [Cyperaceae] Claimed hallucinogenic if roots are smoked. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 citing McKenna et al. 1986. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b.


Cyperus prolixus Humboldt, Bonpland & Kunth [Cyperaceae] Claimed hallucinogenic if roots are smoked. Ott 1994 cited McKenna et al. 1986.


Datura [?] Occasional admixture. Bristol 1966 cited Schultes 1957. D. arborea may be used.


Desmanthus illinoensis [Leguminosae] Not known as a traditional ayahuasca additive but its roots are successfully used for this purpose in modern times due to its DMT content. (Some strains are low in or devoid of alkaloids.)

Desmanthus leptolobus [Leguminosae] Not known as a traditional ayahuasca additive but its roots are successfully used for this purpose in modern times due to its DMT content. Alkaloid content is more consistent than D. illinoensis.



Diplopterys cabrerana
(Cuatr.) B.Gates [Malpighiaceae] Used in ayahuasca; Schultes 1972a cited Bristol 1966, Der Marderosian et al. 1968) and Pinkley 1969; Bianchi & Samorini 1993 citing Poisson 1965. Also Schultes 1972c. Use as ayahuasca additive observed among the Shuar by Friedberg 1965 and among the Kofán of Ecuador by Pinkley 1969; Ott 1994. Used as an additive rather than an MAOI source; Ott 1994 cited Agurell et al. 1968), Der Marderosian et al. 1968), Pinkley 1969, Poisson 1965 and Schultes 1972a. [Source plant for the drink. Bristol 1966 cited Schultes 1957.] The most common admixture used by the Siona. (While familiar with P. viridis as used by their neighbors, the Kofan, they use it only occasionally.) Several classes are recognized apparently based on their size. Langdon 1986 See also under separate entry for Diplopterys cabrerana elsewhere here.


Diplopterys involuta (Turcz.) Ndz. [= Mezia includens (Benth.) Cuatrecasas] [Malpighiaceae] see note under Mezia.


Drymonia sp. [Gesneriaceae]: "oshetoshi" Used as a baby bath for protection from a malevolent monkey spirit. Russo et al. 1996-1997 Unclear if actually used in ayahuasca.


Epiphyllum sp. [Cactaceae] Reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969. Admixture used among Kulina and Sharanahua in Amazonian Peru; Schultes 1972a cited Reinberg 1921 but meant Rivier & Lindgren 1972 or Pinkley 1969. Bianchi & Samorini 1993; cited Pinkley 1969. Ott 1994 cited Pinkley 1969 and Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Schultes 1972c and McKenna et al. 1986 cited Rivier & Lindgren 1972.


Erythrina fusca Lour. (= E. glauca Willd.) [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984b. Used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b citing Villarejo 1979 and Chaumeil 1982. McKenna et al. 1986 included no reference.


Erythrina poeppigiana (Walp.) O.F. Cook [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 citing Luna (1986c). Ott 1994 cited McKenna et al. 1986. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b and Soukup 1970.


Erythroxylum coca Lamarck var. ipadú [Erythroxylaceae] Used with ayahuasca by Campa in Peru and Barasana in Colombia. Ott 1994 cited Holmstedt et al. 1978, Schultes 1981 and Wilbert 1987.


Erythroxylum novogranatense [Erythroxylaceae] Leaf chewing accompanies the ayahuasca use of some individuals in Australia. (Observation by Trout 2001)


Euphorbia sp. [Euphorbiaceae] Tea is used by apprentices, among the Shipibo-Conibo at Ucayalli, Peru, to "improve the view during the ayahuasca intoxication" and to "ameliorate the voice to sing icaros and taquinas." Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Tournon & Reategui 1984.


Ficus sp. [Moraceae] Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984b. Used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Juice of shoots is taken alone, with diet, to learn to travel underwater. Luna 1984b.


Ficus insipida Willd. [Moraceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993, McKenna et al. 1986 and Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984b. May be taken alone to learn medicine [Ed.: unclear if used as admixture]; Luna 1984b.


Ficus ruiziana Standl. [Moraceae] Ott 1994 citing McKenna et al. 1986. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b.


Fittonia albivenis [Acanthacaceae]: "mamperikipini" Leaves used by the Machiguenga as a hallucinogenic admixture in kamarampi prior to their introduction to Psychotria viridis. Russo et al. 1996-1997

Geogenanthus sp. [Commelinaceae]: "sanogarish" Used by the Machiguenga as a favored ingredient in kamarampi prior to their introduction to Psychotria viridis. Reportedly used for the patterned visions it produces. Russo et al. 1996-1997


Gnetum nodiflorum Brongniart [Gnetaceae] Suggested as a source of caapi among some Brazilian Tukano. (Extremely tentative; see kúri-kaxpi-dá.) Schultes 1972a. Unconfirmed. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and Ott 1994 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990. Gnetum appears to be toxic.


Gnetum Leyboldii Tula. [Gnetaceae] Suggested as a source of caapi among some Brazilian Tukano. (Extremely tentative, perhaps even doubtful; see kúri-kaxpi-dá.) Schultes 1972a.


Guettarda ferox Standl. [Rubiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b. Ott 1994 cited McKenna.
[Ed.: The Brazilian Guettarda viburnoides is said to be called "angico"; a name also used in parts of Brazil for Anadenanthera; Von Reis Altschul 1967a.]


Heliconia sp. [Heliconiaceae] Listed as a traditional ayahuasca admixture by Rätsch 1998.


Heliconia stricta Huber [Heliconiaceae] Listed as a traditional ayahuasca admixture by Rätsch 1998.


Herrania sp. [Sterculiaceae] Listed as a traditional ayahuasca admixture by Rätsch 1998.


Himatanthus sucuuba (Spr. ex Muell. -Arg.) Woodson [Apocynaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993, McKenna et al. 1986 and Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984b. Used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b citing Soukop 1970.


Hura crepitans L. [Euphorbiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b; as did Ott 1994 also citing Luna 1984a. Requires diet. Used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b. May also be taken alone to learn medicine; Luna 1984b. Taken by itself and considered a powerful plant teacher by Peruvian Mestizos. Luna 1984a.


Ilex guayusa Loesner [Aquifoliaceae] Used as ayahuasca admixture by Peruvian Quijos Quichua; Ott 1994. Added by Quijos quichua, Runa and Shuar of Ecuador (Ott 1994 cited Furst 1976, Kohn 1992, Ott 1993, Russo 1992, Schultes 1972b, Schultes & Raffauf 1990. Schultes 1979a includes a 17th century account of its use as an additive used by the Shuar. Its use as an admixture is also mentioned in Shemluck 1979.


Iochroma fuchsioides (HBK) Miers [Solanaceae] Evidence suggests it may be used with or added to yajé by some Kamsa in the Sibundoy Valley of Colombia; Schultes 1972c. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and Ott 1994 cited McKenna et al. 1986. Ott 1994 also cited Schultes 1977. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Schultes 1972c, Schultes 1972a and Pinkley 1969. Leaves are also used alone to prepare a hallucinogenic drink by being crushed in water along with a handful of the freshly rasped stem bark and this mixture then heated. One to 3 cupfuls of this strong decocotion are consumed over a three hour period when used as a hallucinogen. Schultes 1983d. Occasionally incorporated into ayahuasca Ayala Flores & Lewis 1978.


Ipomoea carnea [Convolvulaceae] Listed as a traditional ayahuasca admixture by Rätsch 1998. (Possible erroneous entry? Unable to find a supporting reference)


Iresine sp. P. Br. [Amaranthaceae] Additive used in Colombian Putumayo; Schultes 1972a cited Schultes 1957. Ott 1994 cited Schultes & Hofmann 1979. Pinkley 1969 cited Schultes 1967. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes 1983b.


Iryanthera longifloraDucke Not reported in ayahuasca.
Oral consumption of resin reported among the Bora of Rio Ampiyacu in Peru. Davis & Yost 1983 cited McKenna et al. unpublished field work.

McKenna et al. (1984)b detected no alkaloids in this species.


Iryanthera macrophylla (Benth.) Warburg [Myristicaceae]: Not reported in ayahuasca.
Source of hallucinogenic paste recognized by Witoto of Puca Urquillo near mouth of Rio Ampiyacu. Schultes et al. 1977a.

Said by Davis & Yost 1983b to be a source of an oral hallucinogen used among the Bora and Witoto of the Peruvian Rio Ampiyacu (citing citing Schultes et al. 1980; meant Schultes & Hofmann 1980).
McKenna et al. (1984)b detected no alkaloids in this species.


Juanulloa ochracea Cuatr. [Solanaceae] Common name (in Colombian Putumayo) of ayahuasca (Inga) suggests its use either as an additive or alone; Schultes 1972a and Schultes 1972c and Schultes 1980. Also McKenna et al. 1986 citing Schultes 1972a. Inhabitants living near Puerto Lión, in Colombia, call it ayahuasca and use the leaf and trunk for wounds; Schultes 1978)b. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 citing Schultes 1979. Ott 1994 cited Schultes 1972a. Occasionally incorporated into ayahuasca Ayala Flores & Lewis 1978.

Said to be combined with other plants by "ayahuasceros". Also used for medicine and magic. Duke & Vasquez M. 1994).
Used as a hallucinogen and in small doses to improve the aim of hunters among the Matsigenka in Peru. They recognize that it is related to Brugmansia. Shepard 1998


Lomariopsis japurensis (Mart.) J. Sm. [Dryopteridaceae (Lomariopsidaceae according to McKenna et al. 1986)] Reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969. Used as additive by Sharanahua of Amazonian Peru. The Culina know the plant but do not incorporate it into ayahuasca; Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Schultes 1972c cited Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Schultes 1972a cited Reinberg 1921 but meant Rivier & Lindgren 1972 or Pinkley 1969 Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969, also Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Ott 1994 cited the same two references. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Rivier & Lindgren 1972.


Lophophora williamsii [Cactaceae] Reported in modern ayahuasca analogs. Rätsch 1998 Also reported by a correspondent requesting anonymity.


Lygodium venustum Swartz. [Schizaeaceae] Reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969. Used as additive by Kulina and Sharanahua of Amazonian Peru; Schultes 1972c cited Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Schultes 1972a cited Reinberg 1921 but meant Rivier & Lindgren 1972 or Pinkley 1969. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969. (see also Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Ott 1994 cited the same two references. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Believed to make the drink stronger. Apparently DOES NOT contain DMT.


Malouetia tamaquarina (Aubl.) A.DC. [Apocynaceae] Reported and vouched by Schultes 1957 but he did not observe its use first hand. Makuna of Amazonian Colombia (Vaupés) add crushed leaves for difficult diagnosis; Schultes 1957, Schultes 1972a, Schultes 1972c (last two cite the first). Bianchi & Samorini 1993 citing Schultes 1967. Ott 1994 cited Pinkley 1969, Schultes 1957 and Schultes 1961. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Schultes 1972c. (Possible admixture. Bristol 1966 cited Schultes 1957 and Schultes & Raffauf 1960.] Considered poisonous in several areas of Colombia; Schultes & Raffauf 1986.


Mandevilla scabra Schumann [Apocynaceae] Ott 1994 cited Luna & Amaringo 1991.


Mansoa alliacea (Lam.) Gentry [Bignoniaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993, McKenna et al. 1986 and Ott 1994 all cited Luna 1984b. Known admixture reported by Prance & Kallunki 1984; Ott 1994. May be taken alone to learn medicine [Ed.: unclear if used as admixture]; Luna 1984b. Given as bath to cure bad luck. Luna 1994a.


Markea formicarium Dammer [Solanaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 citing Schultes 1967.


Mascagnia psilophylla var. antifebrilis (possible admixture) Bristol 1966 cited Schultes 1957 and Schultes & Raffauf 1960. [= Callaeum antifebrile (Griseb.) Johnson ] [Malpighiaceae] See above in source-plant list.


Maytenus laevis Reissek [= M. ebenifolia Reiss.] [Celastraceae] Used by apprentice shamans after ayahuasca sessions; Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b; as did Ott 1994 also citing Luna 1984a. Known admixture reported by Prance and Kallunki 1984; Ott 1994. Used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984a and Luna 1984b. Bark is used as a stimulant in the Peruvian Amazon. Schultes 1983b.


Mezia includens (Benth.) Cuatrecasas [= Diplopterys involuta (Turcz.) Ndz.] Known (in Peru) as Ayahuasca negro, but there are no reports of it being incorporated in the preparation of ayahuasca. [Malpighiaceae] Schultes 1983c and Ott 1994. [Gates 1982 considered this Mezia includens in her revision of Diplopterys] Considered a valuable medicinal plant among the Makuna of the middle Apaporis in Colombia. Roots, bark and leaves are used separately for medicinal purposes. Roots are used as a laxative, the bark for urinary problems and swollen legs and the leaves as an emetic drink. Schultes 1975a


Mimosa hostilis (Martius) Bentham [Leguminosae] is considered a synonym of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willdenow) Poiret by Barneby 1991. Rootbark used directly for preparing a DMT rich drink known as vinho de jurema; Gonçalves de Lima 1946. Purported to be active alone in the literature, this is has found conflicting reports among modern users. See details elsewhere here.

Common name given as jurema; Reported use in Freise 1933.

Gonçalves de Lima gives a common name of jurema preta.See Mimosa hostilis (Jurema) entry for more details.

DMT content of dry rootbark is around one-half of one percent; Gonçalves de Lima 1946 and Pachter et al. 1959. Used to prepare a traditional hallucinogenic brew. Not known as a traditional ayahuasca additive but its roots are successfully being used for this purpose in modern times due to its DMT content. Native usage has nearly died out. Da Mota is one of the few modern accounts of surviving users. [da Silveira Barbosa 1998 is an interesting account of modern day use in northwestern Brazil.] Material from Mexico has proven every bit as potent as that from Brazil (if not more so). Has its own entry elsewhere in this piece.


Mimosa nigra J. Huber is considered a synonym of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willdenow) Poir. by Barneby 1991. Rootbark is used in modern ayahausca analogsl stembark is toasted and used as a traditional burn medicine in Mexico calledtepescohuite.See deMoraes et al. 1990 (as M. tenuiflora).


Mimosa ophthalmocentra Given common name of jurema preta in Barneby 1991 and in Batista & Almeida 1997.

Batista et al. 1999 isolated DMT, MMT & hordenine from its roots and reported it to be used for preparing jurema in northeastern Brazil.

Batista & Almeida 1997 had isolated the same 3 alkaloids from the stem bark and reported it used in "mystico-religious ceremonies"


Mimosa scabrella
Bentham: No reports of use for hallucinogenic purposes, Analysis of stem bark suggests that 126 grams could, in theory, supply 45 mg of DMT; De Moraes et al. 1990. Roots appear unevaluated chemically; may prove to be high if stem-to-root ratios are like M. hostilis but no way to do more than guess at this point.

Commercially available seeds have not germinated for me, despite repeated attempts, in Texas. Reported hardy in the north of England.


Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir.: No traditional use as a hallucinogen is known from Mexico but rootbark is highly effective.

Perhaps best known as its synonym: the Brazilian Mimosa hostilis; Barneby 1991.

Mexican populations are harvested for a burn treatment; Meckes-Lozoya et al. 1990.


Mimosa verrucosa Bentham Report of native use; Gonçalves de Lima 1946. Potential vinho da jurema admixture known as jurema branca. Ott 1995 Also known as Jurema preta; Barneby 1991. Lacks chemical analysis. Da Mota presents it as a soporific lacking hallucinogenic activity. Silveira Barbosa 1998 added an interesting twist to the story. See Mimosa verrucosa comments within the Jurema entry; elsewhere here.

Known as Jurema, Jurema branca & Jurema negra (variable according to tribe) Silveira Barbosa 1998

Montrichardia arborescens Schott. [Araceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b. Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984a. May be taken alone to learn medicine [Ed.: unclear if used as admixture]; Luna 1984b. Juice of shoots is taken alone, with diet, to learn to travel underwater. Luna 1984a and Luna 1984b.


Nicotiana sp.: Used as admixture or use associated with ayahuasca use among Aguaruna, Barasana, Campa, Cocama, Lamista, Machigenga, Omagua, Piro, Shipibo, Shuar and Tecuana; reported by Wilbert 1987. Used as admixture by Shuar; Ott 1994 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990. Among Quijos Quichua and Secoya by Vickers & Plowman 1984; from Ott 1994. May also be taken alone to learn medicine; Luna 1984b. Used by the Siona as an admixture. Permits the shaman to transform into a small snake. Langdon 1986

Tobacco is believed to augment Banisteriopsis sessions and to deepen the relationship between the shaman and the saangariite. It serves as a food for shamans and their spirit allies. Shepard 1998


Nicotiana rustica L. [Solanaceae] Ott 1994 citing Luna 1984b and Wilbert 1987.


Nicotiana tabacum L. [Solanaceae] Extract (leaves steeped in water) added to cold water infusion of B. caapi bark by Barasana. Schultes 1957.

Common additive in northwest Amazon; Schultes 1972c cited Schultes 1957.

Frequent additive in Rio Negro-Vaupés region; Schultes 1972a cited Bristol 1966, Pinkley 1969 and Schultes 1957. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Pinkley 1969. Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984b, Schultes 1972a and Wilbert 1987.

Used widely by shamans (as well as other Nicotiana spp.) for smoking during ceremonies involving ayahuasca and other hallucinogens. Used in a wide variety of ritual, healing & intoxicating applications. The smoke is believed to ward off demonic spirits. "Shamans also prepare an intoxicating infusion of tobacco which they drink through the nose in the quest of visions and shamanic knowledge" Vickers & Plowman 1984

Smoked with ayahuasca by Ese'eja shamans (they do not use admixtures just pure B. caapi) Desmarchelier et al. 1996


Ocimum micranthum Will. [Labiatae] Reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969. Admixture used among Kulina and Sharanahua in Amazonian Peru, also used for fragrance; Schultes 1972a cited Reinberg 1921 but meant Rivier & Lindgren 1972 or Pinkley 1969. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and Ott 1994 cited Pinkley 1969. Schultes 1972c cited Rivier & Lindgren 1972. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Schultes 1972c.


Opuntia sp. [Cactaceae] Reported and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969. Use as ayahuasca additive reported by Rivier & Lindgren has apparently died out (claimed to be due to excessive strength). It is currently used alone as a hallucinogen by some Shipibo and Amahuaca shamans. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 [They include a photograph.]. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 also cited Rivier & Lindgren 1972 as did Ott 1994 and McKenna et al. 1986.
Field work by Stuart (who was provided with his contact info by Bianchi) concluded this claim was most likely spurious and he believed was fabricated specifically for the benefit of inquiring ethnobotanists. As was strongly suggested by the photo of Samorini, the identity proved to be Opuntia (formerly Brasiliopuntia) brasilensis, a popular ornamental cactus that is commonly and widely cultivated throughout the tropical areas of South American and the Caribbean.
Stuart based his conclusions on his experiences with the shaman who repeatedly dosed him with the plant juice (orally administered accompanied by prodigious amounts of tobacco juice) as well as his subsequent private bioassay of a much larger amounts of the material accompanied by an MAOI.
Unlike all previous field workers, Stuart prepared vouchers and collected living material of the plant in question for scientific examination and analysis. Stuart 2002


Osteophloem platyspermum (A.DC.) Warb. Said to have been used as an oral hallucinogen by the elders (or ancestors) of modern Ecuadorian Runa. The red sap was collected (trunk scored and collection vessels attached) and cooked (sometimes with pieces of bark) Once cool the beverage was consumed in order to communicate with the spirit world. Excessive amounts were said to be fatal. (Said to be toxic in large amounts or if it was not cooked) Mixed with Brugmansia and Tabernaemontana sananho, it was used orally in humans or a few drops were placed on the noses of dogs to make them better hunters. (Shuar & Secoya use Brugmansia spp. and Tabernaemontana sanaho extracts for this purpose) Bennett & Alarcón 1994


Palicourea spp.: Not reported as an ayahuasca admixture but Schultes 1969 suggested that this genus be examined for chemistry similar to the related Psychotria spp. The flowers of many species of Palicourea are used for rat poison. Von Reis Altschul 1975


Paullinia yoco Schultes & Killip [Sapindaceae] Used as admixture by Siona in Colombia Ott 1994 and Langdon 1986

Basis of a stimulating drink prepared as a cold water infusion of its bark. Drink is commonly consumed in mornings (usually pre-dawn hours). Given at dawn after yahé ceremonies. (Siona-Secoya) Vickers & Plowman 1984


Peperomia sp. [Piperaceae] Listed as a traditional ayahuasca admixture by Rätsch 1998.

Petiveria alliacea L. [Phytolaccaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993, McKenna et al. 1986 and Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984b. Used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b. May also be taken alone to learn medicine; Luna 1984b.


Pfaffia iresinoides [Amaranthaceae] Said to be decreasingly used as a hallucinogen by Shipibo. Used to prepare for the ayahuasca experience. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 citing Tournon & Reategui 1984.


Phalaris aquatica (= P. tuberosa L.) ("Canary grass" or "Large Canarygrass") [Graminae] Not known as a traditional ayahuasca additive but its foliage is successfully used for this purpose in modern times due to its DMT/ 5-MeO-DMT content.


Phalaris aquatica var. stenoptera (= P. stenoptera) ("Harding-grass)[Graminae] Not known as a traditional ayahuasca additive but its foliage is successfully used for this purpose in modern times due to the 5-MeO-DMT/ DMT content.


Phalaris arundinacea L. [Graminae] ("Reed Canary grass") Not known as a traditional ayahuasca additive but its foliage is successfully used for this purpose in modern times due to the 5-MeO-DMT/ DMT content.

Phalaris brachystachys [Graminae] Not known as a traditional ayahuasca additive but its foliage is successfully used for this purpose in modern times due to the high DMT content. Very clean alkaloid profile in some, but not all, strains.


Phalaris canariensis [Graminae] ("Canary grass") Annual grass that is generally extremely low or deficient in DMT, except for the sporadic plant, but at least one uniformly good DMT strain has been selected and is being cultivated specifically for ayahuasca analog purposes. Similarly with a 5-MeO-DMT producer. Neither is known as a traditional ayahuasca additive but their foliage is successfully used for this purpose in modern times due to the high alkaloid content. Can have a very clean alkaloid profile but apparently this is variable.


Phalaris commutata: [= P. aquatica cv. Australian]


Phalaris tuberosa L. [= Phalaris aquatica .]


Phrygilanthus eugenioides Eichler [Loranthaceae] Admixture used among Kulina and Sharanahua in Amazonian Peru; Schultes 1972a cited Reinberg 1921 but meant Rivier & Lindgren 1972 or Pinkley 1969. Also taken alone as hallucinogen. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and Ott 1994 cited Pinkley 1969; Ott 1994 and Schultes 1972c cited Rivier & Lindgren 1972.


Phrygilanthus eugenioides (L.) HBK var. robustus Glaz. [Loranthaceae] Ott 1994 cited McKenna et al. 1986. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Rivier & Lindgren 1972.


Phtirusa pyrifolia (HBK) Eichler [Loranthaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 citing Luna 1984b; as did Ott 1994 also citing Luna 1984a. May be taken alone to learn medicine [Ed.: unclear if used as admixture]; Luna 1984 and Luna 1984b. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b.


Piper sp. [Piperaceae] Ott 1994 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990.


Pithecolobium laetum Poepp. & Endl. [P. laetum Bentham?][Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993, McKenna et al. 1986 and Ott 1994 citing Luna 1984b. Used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b cited Williams 1936.

According to Gonçalves de Lima 1946 Pithecolobium species were sometimes added to vinho de jurema.

Schultes 1954 mentions that several Pithecolobium species are called paricá in parts of Brazil. Paricá is a name frequently applied to Virola and/or Anadenanthera based snuffs and the plants they originate from.


Pontederia cordata L. [Pontederiaceae] Vernacular name of "amarón borrachero", used in Colombian Putumayo, suggest use as intoxicant, perhaps as an ayahuasca additive; Schultes 1980, Schultes 1972a and Schultes 1972c: the latter cited Schultes 1972a. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 citing McKenna et al. 1986. Ott 1994 cited Schultes 1972a. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Schultes 1972a and Schultes 1972c.


Prestonia amazonica is most likely an erroneous inclusion. See discussion elsewhere here. [Apocynaceae]


Psilocybe spp. [Agaricaceae] Used by some in Iquitos area for shamanic purposes but not reported as an ayahuasca admixture there. Luna 1984b. Not known as a traditional ayahuasca additive but Psilocybe cubensis and perhaps others have been successfully used for this purpose in modern times due to their psilocin/psilocybin content. Very effective.


Psychotria spp. (Unidentified species) [Rubiaceae] Several have been reported to be incorporated in ayahuasca.. Potencies are variable from good to inactive. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990. Ott 1994 cited Der Marderosian et al. 1970 and Rivier & Lindgren 1972. See more on Psychotria species elsewhere here.


Psychotria alba Ruíz et Pavón. [Rubiaceae] Sometimes used. Duke & Vasquez M. 1993 Used by UdV. Native Habitat 1998.


Psychotria carthaginensis Jacq. [Rubiaceae] Used in ayahuasca. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and Ott 1994 cited Pinkley 1969. Ott 1994 also cited Luna 1984a and Schultes 1972a. Schultes 1972a cited Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Also listed by Duke & Vasquez Martinez 1993.


Psychotria horizontalis Sw. [Rubiaceae] Used in ayahuasca. Duke & Vasquez M. 1993


Psychotria marginata Sw. [Rubiaceae] Used in ayahuasca. Duke & Vasquez M. 1993


Psychotria poeppigiana Muell.-Arg. [Rubiaceae] Very potent and ornamental ayahuasca additive (human bioassay indicates DMT is present) Private communication with botanical explorer; name withheld by request. Used as ornamental and for multiple medicinal uses. Duke & Vasquez M. 1993. Stem exudate used to cure infections in eyes by the Chácobo living at Alto Ivón, Beni, Bolivia. Common shrub in secondary forest; distributed throughout the neo-tropics. Boom 1987).


Psychotriaspp. See separate Psychotria section elsewhere in this work.


Psychotria stenostachya Standl. [Rubiaceae] Used in ayahuasca. Duke & Vasquez Martinez 1993

Psychotria psychotriaefolia (Seem.) Standl. [All reports of use for P. psychotriaefolia are based on misidentified material later shown to be Psychotria viridis Ruíz et Pavón.]


Psychotria viridis Ruíz et Pavón. [Rubiaceae] Pinkley was the first to report its use by the Kofán and provide material for positive species identification. Reported used by Sharanahua and Culina and vouched by Rivier and Rüff; Pinkley 1969. Used in ayahuasca. Duke & Vasquez Martinez 1993. Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984a, Pinkley 1969 and Prance 1970. Schultes 1972a cited Der Marderosian et al. 1970 and Rivier & Lindgren 1972. Normal admixture used by the Kofan. Langdon 1986

See also under Psychotria section earlier.


Quararibea "ishpingo" [Bombacaceae] Ott 1994 cited Arévalo Valera 1986 and Wassén 1979.


Rinorea viridiflora Rusby [Violaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and Ott 1994 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990. DMT is claimed to be present in Fericgla 1994 but this is based on a bioassay of a Shuar drink prepared with this species as the admixture. While a strong and important indication, chemical analysis is needed.

Shaman's rattles are made from bound leaves. Vickers & Plowman 1984


Rudgea retifolia Standley [Rubiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and Ott 1994 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990. Ott also cited Schultes 1985a.


Sabicea amazonensis Wernham [Rubiaceae] Barasana of the Vaupes in Colombia add to sweeten the bitter taste; Schultes 1972c. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and Ott 1994 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990. Ott also cited Hugh-Jones 1979, Schultes 1985a and Schultes & Raffauf 1992.


Sclerobium setiferum Ducke [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and Ott 1994 cited McKenna et al. 1986. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b.


Scoparia dulcis L. [Scrophulariaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993, McKenna et al. 1986, and Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984b. Used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b.


Stelis sp. (tentative identification) [Orchidaceae]: "kemishitsa" Machiguenga use in shamanic training. Thought to be hallucinogenic. Russo et al. 1996-1997


Stygmaphyllon fulgens (Lam.) A.Jussieu [Malpighiaceae] Added to strengthen yajé. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and Ott 1994 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990. In need of analysis.


Tabebuia sp. [Bignoniaceae] Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984b. Used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b citing Williams 1936.


Tabebuia incana A.Gentry [Bignoniaceae] Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984a. Bark is used as ayahuasca admixture; Luna 1984a citing Villarejo 1979, page 101 ss.


Tabebuia heteropoda (DC.) Sandwith [Bignoniaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and McKenna et al. 1986 citing Luna 1984b. Ott 1994 cited McKenna et al. 1986. Use requires diet. This is said to be a tree like a branding iron. McKenna et al. 1986 ["Es un palo como fierro."]


Tabernaemontana sp. [Apocynaceae] Unvouched additive plant reported by Friedberg to be used in Amazonian Peru; Schultes 1972a and 1972c cited Friedberg 1965. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 citing Luna 1984. Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984a, Luna 1984b, Pinkley 1969 and Schultes 1972a. Pinkley 1969 cited Friedberg 1965. Used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984a and Luna 1984b. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b and Schultes 1972c. Occasionally incorporated into ayahuasca Ayala Flores & Lewis 1978.


Tabernaemontana sananho Used as a psychomotor stimulant; Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Delle Monache et al. 1977.

The Secoya in eastern Ecuador put the sticky liquid from the fruit into the nose of their dogs to improve the smelling capabilities. Vickers & Plowman 1984 Used similarly by other groups (sometimes in conjunction with other plants including Brugmansia). Bennett & Alarcón 1994


Teliostachia (Teliostachya) lanceolata Nees var. crispa Nees & Mart. [Acanthaceae] Plant is cultivated. Used both as additive and also alone as intoxicant in Amazonian Peru (by Kokama). Effects, including loss of sight, may last several days (when using 10 leaves boiled for 7 hours); Schultes 1972c. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Schultes & Raffauf 1990. Ott 1994 cited Schultes 1972a. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b and Schultes 1972a. Also Pom ilio et al. 1999


Thevetia sp. [Apocynaceae] Listed as a traditional ayahuasca admixture by Rätsch 1998.


Tournefortia angustiflora R. & P. [Boraginaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and Ott 1994 cited Vickers & Plowman 1984.

Vine is cut then split and made into an overnight infusion that is taken in the pre-dawn hours on the same day when a Banisteriopsis ceremony is to be performed (after sunset). Said to serve as a purgative to "cleanse" the body in preparation for the experience. Vickers & Plowman 1984


Tovomita sp. [Clusiaceae] [Guttiferae according to Luna] Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984b. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 cited Luna 1984b and McKenna et al. 1986. Used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b. Requires diet; McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b.

Trichilia tocacheana DC. [Meliaceae] Listed as a traditional ayahuasca admixture by Rätsch 1998.


Trichocereus pachanoi [Cactaceae] Not known as a traditional ayahuasca additive but successfully used for this purpose in modern times (DeKorne 1997). Ayahuasca is said to double its effects. Lophophora williamsii, Trichocereus bridgesii & Trichocereus peruvianus have been bioassayed by readers requesting anonymity. See also Trichocereus peruvianus
Others are sure to join the list someday. [Pure mescaline & harmaline were bioassayed in combination by one of Naranjo's subjects (in Harner) and by a European psychonaut using harmine/harmaline with mescaline (in Ott 1993)


Triplaris surinamensis Chamisso [Polygonaceae] Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984a and 1984b. Used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984a and Luna 1984b. [Within the Polygonaceae, Eriogonum species have been reported to contain DMT. Ott 1994. There is some question as to the accuracy of this claim however.]


Triplaris surinamensis Cham. var. chamissoana Meisn. [Polygonaceae] Shoots are said to be substituted for P. viridis leaves when the latter is lacking. Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b. Ott 1994 cited McKenna et al. 1986.


Tynanthus panurensis (Bur.) Sandwith [Bignoniaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993, McKenna et al. 1986 and Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984b. Tentative identification of a plant used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b.


Uncaria guianensis (Aubl.) Gmelin [Rubiaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and Ott 1994 cited McKenna et al. 1986. McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b.


Uncaria tomentosa [Rubiaceae] ? Listed as a traditional ayahuasca admixture by Rätsch 1998.

Virola sp. Aubl. [Myristicaceae] Used as ayahuasca admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b. Used orally. Bianchi & Samorini 1993, McKenna et al. 1986 and Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984b.

Muinave use the local species with the smallest leaves to prepare a hallucinogenic resin. Schultes 1969b. [Said, in Schultes 1969 to possibly be V. calophylloidea; in Schultes et al. 1977a, the Witotos said this species was not used for paste preparation]

The Witotos select trees with an ample cambial layer, a bitter taste and a musty odor. Trees with the most copious resin appeared to produce less tryptamines. Schultes et al. 1977a.


Virola calophylla Oral use reported among Bora Bora of Rio Ampiyacu in Peru; Davis & Yost (1983) citing McKenna unpublished field work. Used by the Puinave as a snuff source. Schultes & Holmstedt 1968


Virola calophylloidea [Myristicaceae] Thought to be the possible identity of a resin used orally by the Muinanes and Bora: Schultes 1969b. Said to NOT have been used by the Bora: Schultes et al. 1977 Used by the Puinave as a snuff source: Schultes & Holmstedt 1968 Used by the Waika as a snuff source. Seitz 1967 [Active in modern bioassays]


Virola divergens Oral use by Bora of Rio Ampiyacu in Peru reported; Davis & Yost 1983 cited McKenna unpublished field work. See comment under V. duckei below


Virola duckei A.C.Smith: Resin is used alone (or with Brugmansia spp. and/or Tabernaemontana sanaho) as an oral hallucinogen by the Runa in Ecuador. Likely retained in mouth not swallowed. (Preparation and use is same as Osteophloem platyspermum: See more details under) Bennett & Alarcón 1994


Virola elongata (Benth.) Warburg Oral use reported among Bar-Makú in the Colombian Vaupés. Schultes & Holmstedt 1971. Inner bark exudate is ingested directly without preparation by the Maku of the Rio Paraparaná. Davis & Yost 1983b cited Schultes & Hofmann 1980

Said by the Bora living at Brillo Nuevo (trees growing along the banks of the Rio Yaguasyacu) to be the "best" source for oral Virola resin. Schultes et al. 1977a. Said to be a source for preparation of hallucinogenic paste used by the Bora (Tierra Firme on the Rio Ampiyacu). Schultes et al. 1977a.

Bora and Witoto of Rio Ampiyacu in Peru use to make an oral hallucinogen. [citing Schultes et al. 1980; meant Schultes & Hofmann 1980]. Davis & Yost 1983b


Virola loretensis A.C. Smith Oral use reported among Bora and Witoto of the Peruvian Rio Ampiyacu) [citing Schultes et al. 1980; meant Schultes & Hofmann 1980]. Davis & Yost 1983b

Used as source for hallucinogenic paste once used by the Bora. Schultes et al. 1977a.


Virola Pavonis (DC.) A.C. Smith: Said to be a source for preparation of hallucinogenic paste used by the Bora (Tierra Firme on the Rio Ampiyacu, Peru). Schultes et al. 1977a. [Also Davis & Yost 1983b citing McKenna et al. unpublished].


Virola surinamensis (Rol.) Warburg [Myristicaceae] Used orally. Bianchi & Samorini 1993, McKenna et al. 1986 and Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984b. Ott 1994 also cited Luna 1984a. Used as an ayahuasca admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984a and Luna 1984b.

Oral use reported among the Bora and Witoto of the Peruvian Rio Ampiyacu) Davis & Yost (1983)a cited Schultes unpublished. [Davis & Yost 1983b cited Schultes et al. 1980; meant Schultes & Hofmann 1980]. Used as source for preparation of hallucinogenic paste once used by the Bora. Schultes et al. 1977a.


Virola theiodora [Myristicaceae] Thought to be the identity of a resin used orally by the Witoto. Schultes 1969b. Resin is used in snuff preparation without any admixtures by the Waiká of the Rio Tototobí. They believe that younger trees are the best and that the lowest 4-5 feet of the bark is richest in resin. Schultes & Holmstedt 1968

A major source plant for making snuff. Schultes 1957.

Said synonymous with Virola elongata by Smith but Schultes believes it recognizably distinct due to its lightly sinuous leaf margins. Tototibí Waiká use resin for both a snuff source and an arrow poison. Schultes & Holmstedt 1968


Vitex trifolia Vahl. [Verbenaceae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b. Ott 1994 cited McKenna et al. 1986.


Vouacapoua americana Aubl. [Leguminosae] Bianchi & Samorini 1993 and Ott 1994 cited Luna 1984b. Used physically for magical purposes by Tiriós. Plotkin 1993 page 99.


Used as admixture by Mestizos in Iquitos region. Luna 1984b citing Soukop 1970.

Requires diet; McKenna et al. 1986 cited Luna 1984b.
    Voyria sp. [Gentianaceae]: "tuiruibanto" Flowers used by the Machiguenga as a favored ingredient in kamarampi prior to their introduction to Psychotria viridis. Russo et al. 1996-1997