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Section 3 : Part 2 :
Some words associated with Anadenanthera and/or snuffs
(or not!)

Entries below for A. colubrina taken from Rätsch 1998 do not differentiate between var. colubrina and var. cebil.

See also A look at the MYRISTICACEAE.

acuja: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

aimpä and aimpä-kid: Names listed for A. colubrina. See note above. Rätsch 1998.

ai'-yuka: A name used on upper Rio Ventuari in Venezuela for Anadenanthera peregrina. May be a generic term and also refer to a Virola but this is not clear from the wording. Schultes & Holmstedt 1968

ai'ku:duwha: A name used on upper Rio Ventuari in Venezuela for the powdered bark of Anadenanthera peregrina. [Schultes has questioned if this might not have instead referred to Virola] Schultes & Holmstedt 1968

aját: Either a supernatural being or a specific condtion attained by a shaman. Wichi (Mataco) of the Argentinean Central Chaco. Torres & Repke 1996 akúa: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

a'ku:duwha : A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

algarobo (algaroba): Name given on an herbarium specimen of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil from Peru. It is said to be a name used in Argentina but may actually be a postconquest word to refer to many leguminous plants. There is confusion and lack of agreement on this point. von Reis Altschul 1972

algarroba de yupa: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

angíco: Name for certain leguminous trees including Anadenanthera peregrina. Leaves were claimed to be used as a snuff source. Schultes 1967. Also von Reis Altschul 1967a. While most specimens that have been assayed would not, there have been samples of A. peregrina leaves tested which were in the range of other materials used for preparing snuff; and one contained enough 5-MeO-DMT to be active if blown up the nostrils in large amounts similar to other snuffs. See above.

angico: Common name applied (in Brazil) to Anadenanthera peregrina and snuff made from its seeds. von Reis Altschul 1964.

angico: Name listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. Rätsch 1998.

angico: Name used on herbarium voucher of Guettarda viburnoides [Rubiaceae] from Brazil. von Reis Altschul 1967a

angico branco: Name used on herbarium voucher of an undetermined Pithecolobium sp. [Leguminosae] from Brazil. von Reis Altschul 1967a

angico branco: Name used on herbarium voucher of Piptadenia contorta [Leguminosae] from Brazil. von Reis Altschul 1967a

angico do cerrado: Name listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. Rätsch 1998.

angico rosa : A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

anjico: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

angiquin: Name used on herbarium voucher of Mimosa malacocentra [Leguminosae] from Brazil. Leaf used for pain. von Reis Altschul 1967a

bilca tauri: Unidentified seeds used by Inca, made into liquid; half of which was drunk and the other half used as an enema. von Reis Altschul 1967a

black paricà: Name applied to an Anadenanthera species. von Reis Altschul 1967a. One of two varieties of Piptadenia found in Guiana. Safford 1916

A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

bois écorce: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

bois rouge: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

cabuim: Name listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. Rätsch 1998.

cahoba: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

cajoba: Name applied to an Anadenanthera species. von Reis Altschul 1967a.

candelón: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

caobo: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

cebil: Name applied to an Anadenanthera species. [Ed.: probably to A. colubrina var. cebil] von Reis Altschul 1967a. Name in Tucuman for Piptadenia Cebil growing near Cordova, Argentina. Safford 1916. Mention of use as snuff was made by Narvaez 1583. See Sebil. Name used for the Piptadenia used in Argentina. Safford 1916. Snuff used by Maué of the Gran Chaco made from Piptadenia macrocarpa seeds. Also used to mean P. macrocarpa the tree. Wassen 1967. Anadenanthera colubrina var. Cebil tree and seeds. Torres & Repke 1996

cebil blanco: Name listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. Rätsch 1998.

cebil colorado: Name listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. Rätsch 1998.

cehobbâ: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

cemis: Spirits communicated with via Anadenanthera peregrina snuff usage by ancient Haitian islanders and the carved images made of stone or wood which represent them. Safford 1916a

cevil: Name thought to refer to Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil. von Reis Altschul 1972.

cevil: Snuff once used by Lule in western Chaco, Argentina. Wassen 1967 cites a 1733 account of its use to provoke rain.

cevil blanco: Name listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. Rätsch 1998.

Chuña: A bird companion of Tokjwáj. Wichi (Mataco) of the Argentinean Central Chaco. Torres & Repke 1996

cíbil: An unidentified plant chewed by Argentinean Huarpe for endurance. von Reis Altschul 1967a

cogiba: Incorrect transcription of cogioba. Safford 1916

cogioba: Alternative spelling (Italian) of cohoba. Safford 1916) Name used for the Piptadenia used in Haiti. Safford 1916.

cohaba and cohiba: Common names listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

cohoba: Alternate spelling as given by Las Casas. Also spelling as given by Ramon Pane in 1496. Safford noted that this name was still used for A. peregrina in Haiti and Puerto Rico. Safford 1916. Name used for the Piptadenia used in Haiti. Safford 1916. Usually referring to the snuff made from Anadenanthera seeds and/or pods.

Also cohobba in Rätsch 1998

cohobbú coiba: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

cojiba: Incorrect transcription of cogioba. Safford 1916

cojoba: Alternative spelling (Spanish). Name used for the Piptadenia used in Puerto Rico. Safford 1916

cojobana: Name used for the Piptadenia used in Puerto Rico. Safford 1916

cojobilla: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

cojobo: Name used for the Piptadenia used in Puerto Rico. Safford 1916.

coro: A word thought to mean the same as curupa but may actually represent a root derived hallucinogen in Peru. The word is currently poorly defined. Name sometime linked with Anadenanthera or the root word of wild tobacco. von Reis Altschul 1972. Thought to probably represent curupa and/or yopo but its source has been variously reported as a root. Wassen 1967. See cognate words and also caapi-pinima comments earlier.

coro: Name given on a voucher of Trichocline incana from Argentina. Said to be smoked with tobacco. von Reis Altschul 1967a. Common name in Argentina for several Trichocline species (T. dealbata (Hook. et Arn.) Griseb., T. exscapa Griseb. and T. reptans (Wedd.) Rob.) [Compositiae: Mutiseae] Also called contrayerba. Rhizome is smoked with tobacco. Zardini 1977

coro: Unidentified plant said by Padre Pedro Lozana to have its roots added to chicha to increase the intoxicating effects. (in Argentina during the 18th century) Zardini 1977.

coxoba: Snuff made from A. peregrina seeds/pods as known by the islanders of Haiti at the time of Colombus. Safford 1916.

cozoiba: A vernacular name for Virola used in Venezuela. Holmstedt et al. 1980.

cuhuba: Name used in Brazil for Piptadenia tocantina [Leguminosae] Von Reis Altschul 1975.

currú: "dark black" in Quichua. von Reis Altschul 1972.

curuba: Alternate spelling of curupa. Safford 1916 cited Gilii 1780.

curuba: Name used for the Piptadenia used in Venezuela. Safford 1916.

curubu'y: Name listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. Rätsch 1998.

curupa: (curupá ) Omagua drug plant taken as a snuff. Believed to be synonymous with curuba, yupa and ñupa. Thought to be referable to Anadenanthera peregrina. Safford 1916b Snuff said to be made from leaves. Thought to be derived from an Anadenanthera but von Reis Altschul pointed out that Anadenanthera species are not known from the area of the Omagua in western Amazonia and northeastern Peru.

curupa: = Yopo Wassen 1967

curupa: Name used by Omagua near mouth of Rio Napo for tree and snuff. Safford 1916

curupa: Name used for the Piptadenia used in northeastern Peru on the Marañon. Safford 1916. Schultes has repeatedly pointed out this may be in error.

curupá: Snuff said to be prepared from the leaves of A. peregrina by both Omagua and Tupí according to Métraux. Wassen 1967 Also used as an enema.

curupai and curupai-curú: Names listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. Rätsch 1998.

curupau: Name applied to an Anadenanthera species. Von Reis Altschul 1967a. Name for Anadenanthera tree. Wassen 1967 curupaù barcino and curupaù blanca: Name listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. Rätsch 1998.

curupay: Name applied to an Anadenanthera species in some areas of Brazil. Von Reis Altschul 1967a.

curupaytí: Name listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. Rätsch 1998.

curupí: Name used on herbarium voucher of Asclepias curupi [Asclepiadaceae] from Paraguay (leaf and decoction applied to snake bite) Von Reis Altschul 1967a

curupí: Name used on herbarium vouchers of Sapium gibertii, S. haematospermum and S. lineaerifolium [Euphorbiaceae] from Uruguay. Von Reis Altschul 1967a

dópa: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

ebãnã: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

ebéna: A snuff made from an Anadenanthera species by the Waiká. Schultes &

Holmstedt 1968 elilicas: Alternate spelling for vilca. Von Reis Altschul 1967a.

epena: Virola based snuff. Schultes 1984

epena: Name listed as a Waika name for Virola (in Brazil and Venezuela) Holmstedt et al. 1980. Also used for Virola theiodora (Snuff and arrow poison used by Waiká or Surará of the Río Arará) Schultes & Holmstedt 1971.

epená: Name listed for Virola elongata (Waiká ) Rodrigues 1980

epená: Name used for snuff derived from Virola rufula (Used by people living near São Gabriel in Amazonian Brazil. Schultes & Holmstedt 1971.

epená: Virola snuff as known by Waika of Rio Negro basin in Brazil. Schultes 1967.

epéna: Snuff collected among Surára. Yielded only harmine and tetrahydroharmine. Holmstedt & Lindgren 1967.

epéna: DMT and 5-MeO-DMT were reported in snuff obtained from Araraibo. Holmstedt & Lindgren 1967.

epéna: DMT, DMT-N-oxide, bufotenine and bufotenine-N-oxide were reported in snuff obtained from Yanomámi. Marini-Bettolo et al. 1964 Also mentioned in Holmstedt & Lindgren 1967.

epéna: DMT, MMT and 5-MeO-DMT were reported in snuff obtained from Karauetari (Waika: Yanonami) on Rio Marauiá (from Virola Holmstedt

& Lindgren 1967.epéna: Only harmine and tetrahydroharmine were reported in snuff obtained from Surára. Bernauer 1964.

epéna: Waika (Yanonami) originating snuff yielded DMT, bufotenine and 5-MeO-DMT. Holmstedt et al. 1964.

epéna: Name for Virola calophylloidea Markgraf and the snuff prepared from its resin; as known by the Waika. Seitz 1967.

epéna: This snuff as made at Maturaca contains the resin obtained from Virola theiodora, the leaves of Justicia pectoralis var. stenophylla and the ashes from the bark of Elizabetha princeps. Schultes & Holmstedt 1968

epéna: Waika near Maturacá channel prepared from Virola with ash and mashi-hiri added. Holmstedt & Lindgren 1967.

epéna-kési: Tree and the snuff thought to be prepared from it; suspected to be a Virola. Schultes 1967 and Schultes 1984.

guayacán: Name listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. Rätsch 1998.

hakúdufha: A hallucinogenic snuff used by medicine men among the Yekwaná of the Rio Ventauri in Venezuela (citing Koch-Grünberg) [Later suspected of representing Anadenanthera peregrina obtained during a yearly pilgrimage but never conclusively identified] Schultes & Holmstedt 1968

hatáj: A name for Anadenanthera colubrina var. Cebil used by Wichi (Mataco) of the Argentinean Central Chaco. Torres & Repke 1996

hatáj-ilé: A name for Anadenanthera colubrina var. Cebil used by Wichi (Mataco) of the Argentinean Central Chaco. Torres & Repke 1996

hatax: Name listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. Rätsch 1998.

hilca: Said by Ogilby in 1671 to mean a "one-eyed person" in Chile. Von Reis Altschul 1967a

hisioma: Anadenanthera peregrina as known by Waika of the upper Orinoco. Schultes 1967 and Schultes & Holmstedt 1968. Holmstedt et al. 1980 cited Schultes & Hofmann 1979 and 1980.

huacca: Word meaning idol or something sacred (to Incas) Von Reis Altschul 1967a

huaco verde: Name used on herbarium vouchers of the climbers Mikania cordifolia and M. houstoniana [Compositae] from Peru. Von Reis Altschul 1967a

huilca: Alternate spelling for vilca. Von Reis Altschul 1967a.

huilca: Name used by Quichua for snuff derived from P. peregrina or a closely related species. Safford 1916

huilca: Quechuan word for the tree or snuff prepared from it. Alternate spelling of vilca. Most likely source was Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil. von Reis Altschul 1972

huillca: Alternate spelling for vilca. Von Reis Altschul 1967a.

huillca: Alternate spelling of huilca.

huillca: Name used by Quichua for snuff derived from P. peregrina or a closely related species. Name used for the Piptadenia used in Southern Peru. Safford 1916.

huillca: Name used for Anadenanthera seeds (A. colubrina ?) purchased from drug vendors in southern Peru. Von Reis Altschul 1967a

huillca bejuco: ("climbing vilca") Name used on herbarium voucher of Banisteria leiocarpa. Von Reis Altschul 1967a Common name in Peru for Banisteriopsis lutea (Grisebach) Cuatrecasas. Gates 1982

huillko: Name given by Herrera 1934 for species of Ipomoea. Von Reis Altschul 1967a

huillko: Name given by Herrera 1934 for species of Mirabilis [Nyctaginaceae]. Von Reis Altschul 1967a

Icanchu: A bird companion of Tokjwáj. Wichi (Mataco) of the Argentinean Central Chaco. Torres & Repke 1996

iopo: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

jataj: Name listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. Rätsch 1998.

jayawú: A word meaning shaman. Wichi (Mataco) of the Argentinean Central Chaco. Torres & Repke 1996

jop: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

khoa: An aromatic plant, the leaves of which are said to be burned. Also known as khoba (see under). Identified by some authors as Mentha pulegium [Labiatae] Wassen 1967

khoba: Thought by Wassen to be cognate with cohoba. An aromatic plant that is known by this name, the leaves of which are burned, was identified as the Composite Lepidophyllum quadrangulare. chacha and coba are given as common names used in Argentina for this plant. Also identified as Mentha pulegium [Labiatae] Wassen 1967.

khoba and khobba: Common names listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

khuru: Unidentified Peruvian plant used against rheumatism. Claimed by some to be identical with curupa. von Reis Altschul 1972

kurru: Bora name for the orally active resin prepared from Virola exudate. Schultes 1969b.kuru: "dark black" in Quichua. von Reis Altschul 1972

kurupá and kurupaî and kurupayara: Names listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. Rätsch 1998.

mori: A snuff prepared by the Cashuena in Brazil. The snuff could be made from tobacco or from other ingredients, one of which was "paricà" Wassen 1967.

niopa: Name used for the Piptadenia used in Venezuela. Safford 1916. [Name for Anadenanthera (peregrina) and snuff prepared from its seeds.]

niopa: Said to be made from leaves of a plant by the Achagua (Venezuela and eastern Colombia) according to de Alba. Wassen 1967.

niopo: Name used by Otomac for snuff and tree. Safford 1916)

niopo: Same as niopa. Safford 1916

ñiopo and niupo: Common names listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

noopa and nopa: Common names listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

ñopa: Alternate rendering of niopa Safford 1916.

ñope: Snuff prepared from Anadenanthera seeds by the Otomac. Wassen 1967.

ñopo: Alternate spelling of niopa. Safford 1916

ñupa: Name used by Otomac for snuff and tree. Safford 1916 cited Humboldt & Bonpland 1819.

ñupa: Same as niopa. Safford 1916.

o-'nusék: A word meaning soul or spirit. Wichi (Mataco) of the Argentinean Central Chaco. Torres & Repke 1996

pa-ree-ká: Name used among the Tukanos in northwestern Brazil for snuff from Virola and Anadenanthera. Schultes & Holmstedt 1968

paricà: Snuff made from seeds of an Anadenanthera species. von Reis Altschul 1972. General name for the Piptadenia used in Brazil (tree and snuff). Safford 1916. Name applied to an Anadenanthera species. Von Reis Altschul 1967a. Name used by Mura of Rio Negro for Piptadenia tree and snuff prepared from its fruit. Safford 1916. Name used in parts of Brazil for Piptadenia spp. Schultes 1954.

paricà: One of two varieties of Piptadenia found in Guiana. Safford 1916

paricà: Name of snuff used by Piaroa in Orinoco region of Venezuela. Yielded DMT, bufotenine, 5-MeO-DMT and harmine. Holmstedt & Lindgren 1967.

paricà: Snuff prepared from Anadenanthera peregrina [Mimosa acacioides] seeds by the Paravilhana (A Carib tribe). Reported by Martius 1867. Wassen 1967.

paricà: Snuff used by Mura of Rio Negro. Also used as an enema but the effects are said to be weaker. Safford 1916. De la Condamine 1949 reported similar snuff/enema use among the Omagua of the Marañon.

paricà: Snuff used by the Catukina. Doubtful that it is from an Anadenanthera species. von Reis Altschul 1972.

paricà: Term for Virola derived snuff as known in the Rio Negro-Uaupés area of Brazil. Schultes 1954.

paricà: Virola snuff as known by Desano and Tariano of the lower Colombian Uaupés. Wassen 1967.

paricà: Virola snuff as known in Colombian Amazon. Schultes 1967.

paricà: Identified as Virola cuspidata by Biocca 1966; Identification was based on a piece of bark. Schultes & Holmstedt 1971 point out that this is insufficient material for allowing a definitive determination. It should however be adequate to differentiate a Leguminous plant from a Myristicaceous one.

paricà: DMT, 5-MeO-MMT and 5-MeO-DMT were reported in paricà snuff as prepared from Virola calophylloidea (with no admixtures) by Tucano at Tapuruquara on Upper Rio Negro. Holmstedt & Lindgren 1967.

paricà: Bufotenine was reported in snuff from Colombia. Fish & Horning 1956. Cited by Holmstedt & Lindgren 1967.

paricà: Bufotenine was reported in snuff from Venezuela. Fish & Horning 1956).

paricà: Harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine were reported in snuff obtained from the Tukano. Biocca et al. 1964.

paricà: Name used in parts of Brazil for Cassia fastuosa Willd. Schultes 1954.

paricà: Name used in parts of Brazil for Cedrelinga catenaeformis Ducke. Schultes 1954.

paricà: Name used in parts of Brazil for Parkia spp. Schultes 1954.

paricà: Name used in parts of Brazil for Pithecolobium spp. Schultes 1954

paricà: Name used in parts of Brazil for Schizolobium amazonicum (Hub.) Ducke. Schultes 1954.

paricà: Name used in parts of Brazil for Schizolobium parahybum (Vell.) Blake. Schultes 1954.

paricà: Name used in parts of Brazil for Senegalia spp. Schultes 1954.

paricá: Snuff made from Virola calophylloidea by Tukano; Seitz 1967.

paricá: Name listed for: Virola calophylla and/or Virola calophylloidea (Tukanos ) by Uscategui 1959; Virola cuspidata by Biocca 1966 [See comment by Schultes & Holmstedt 1971]; Virola elongata by Rodrigues 1980; As a Tukano name for Virola, in Brazil and Colombia by Holmstedt et al. 1980; and as the name used for Virola theiodora and V. cuspidata in the Rio Negro, Brazil [See Ducke 1938 and 1939].

paricá: An amber-colored and aromatic resin frequently present in medicine kits of Tukanoan shamans but derived from an unknown plant source. Schultes 1967.

paricarama: Name applied to an Anadenanthera species. Von Reis Altschul 1967a.

parica rana: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

paricachí: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

paricauva: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

quebracho: Name listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. [Said to also be used for Cassia closiana in Chile] Rätsch 1998.

q'uru: Unidentified Peruvian plant used against rheumatism. Claimed by some to be identical with curupa. von Reis Altschul 1972

savanna yoke: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

sebil: Alternate spelling of cebil used by Narvaez 1583 according to Safford 1916.

sébil: An unidentified snuff used by Argentinean Comechingon. Von Reis Altschul 1967a

sebil: Name given for snuff used around Córdoba, Argentina in the last century. Wassen 1967.

sebil: Name used for the Piptadenia used in Argentina. Safford 1916

tabac en arbre: ("tree tobacco"): Common name used by for Piptadenia peregrina missionaries on the Orinoco. Safford 1916b.

tan bark: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

tara: Caesalpinia tinctoria (Herrera 1934) Von Reis Altschul 1967a

tara huillca: Anadenanthera colubrina (Yacovleff & Herrera 1935) Von Reis Altschul 967a

tara huillca: Quechuan word for the tree or snuff prepared from it. Most likely source was Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil. von Reis Altschul 1972

See also tara under MAOI source plant and admixture common name lists and in entry for Caesalpinia.

tek and teek: Names listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. Rätsch 1998.

tobaco-rapé: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

Tokjwáj: A name for the mythical chief of all shamans. Wichi (Mataco) of the Argentinean Central Chaco. Torres & Repke 1996

tree tobacco: See tabac en arbre

uataj: Name listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. Rätsch 1998.

uillca: Name listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. Rätsch 1998.

ullccochilca: Name given on a Peruvian voucher of Baccharis floribunda [Compositae] Von Reis Altschul 1967a

ullucho: Unidentified tree, proposed to be a Anadenanthera species. Depicted in Mochica pottery and supposed to bear a narcotic fruit. Wassen 1967.

uña de gato: Name listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. Rätsch 1998. [Also applied to Uncaria and other plants.]

vilca: Name applied to an Anadenanthera species or referring to the snuff made from Anadenanthera seeds and/or pods. Von Reis Altschul 1967a.

vilca: Name for plant that the Argentinean snuff sebil was derived from. Wassen 1967.

vilca: Name for snuff used by Quichua. May have been derived from P. macrocarpa rather than P. peregrina. Safford 1916

vilca: Name used by Quichua for snuff derived from P. peregrina or a closely relative. Safford 1916

vilca: Name used for Anadenanthera colubrina on several herbarium specimens. One was from southern Peru, the other from Bolivia. Von Reis Altschul 1967a

vilca: Name used for the Piptadenia used in Southern Peru. Safford 1916.

vilca: Quechuan word for the tree or snuff prepared from it. Most likely source was Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil. von Reis Altschul 1972

vilca: Said by Ogilby in 1671 to mean "mother-in-law" in Chile. Von Reis Altschul 1967a

vilca bejuco: ("climbing vilca") Name used on herbarium voucher of Banisteria leiocarpa. Von Reis Altschul 1967a

vilcarán: Name given for Piptadenia rigida. Von Reis Altschul 1967a

vilcas: Alternate spelling for vilca. Von Reis Altschul 1967a.

vilcu: Unidentified plant with yellow bird-like flowers. Von Reis Altschul 1967a

villca: A report from 1571 claimed Inca witch doctors used an herb called villca to contact the devil. Schultes 1984

villca: Alternate spelling for vilca. Von Reis Altschul 1967a and 1972

villca: Name used for the Piptadenia used in Southern Peru. Safford 1916.

villcu: A word for ivy given by Gonzalez Holguin 1607. Von Reis Altschul 1967a

welán: Either a supernatural being or a specific state of consciousness. Wichi (Mataco) of the Argentinean Central Chaco. Torres & Repke 1996

wilca: = vilca. Wassen 1967.

wilca tarwi: Name associated with Lupinus species (Herrera 1934) Von Reis Altschul 1967a

wilka: Name listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. Rätsch 1998.

wil'ka: Alternate spelling of vilca. von Reis Altschul 1972

willca: Name used for Anadenanthera seeds (A. colubrina?) in Bolivia. Von Reis Altschul 1967a

willka: Alternate spelling of vilca. von Reis Altschul 1972

xatax: Name listed for A. colubrina. See note at start of list. Rätsch 1998.

xemes: Same as cemis. Safford 1916b

yacoana: Common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

yarupi: Common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

yarupio: Common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

yoco: Common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

yop: Common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

yopa: Snuff said to be made from leaves by the Achagua of Venezuela and eastern Colombia; according to de Alba. Wassen 1967.

yopa: Snuff made from seeds of an Anadenanthera species. von Reis Altschul 1972

yopa: Snuff used by several Carib tribes. Wassen 1967.

yopo: Snuff obtained in Colombia. Yielded DMT, bufotenine and 5-MeO-DMT. Holmstedt & Lindgren 1967.

yopo: Name applied to an Anadenanthera species. Von Reis Altschul 1967a.

yopo and yópo: Common names listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

yopo: Snuff claimed by Wilbert to be derived from an unidentified vine. Wassen 1967.

yopo: Snuff derived from a tree bark by the Tikuna. Davis & Yost 1983

yopo: Snuff made from seeds of Anadenanthera peregrina. Main use is in Orinoco Basin of Colombia and Venezuela and adjacent areas of Brazil. Schultes 1984.

yopo: Snuff used by Guayaberos made from P. peregrina seeds. Wassen 1967.

yopo: Snuff used by Piaroa on the Orinoco prepared from Piptadenia seeds. Wassen 1967.

yopo: Snuff used by Waika of the upper Orinoco. Incorporating three plants. Schultes 1967.

yoto: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

yu'a' and yu'ä: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

yupa: According to González Holguín 1607, word pertains to the value or valuableness of something. Also used for snuff used by Guahibo, Otomac and Saliva. von Reis Altschul 1972.

yupa: Coca known by the Arawaks. Wassen 1967.

yupa: Name used for the tree Anadenanthera peregrina and the snuff prepared from its fruit by the Otomaco Indians of the Orinoco river. Safford 1916b

yuuba: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.

zumaque: A common name listed for Anadenanthera peregrina in Rätsch 1998.