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Fundamental #10: Decide how much to use and measure dosages carefully.
Ayahuasca: alkaloids, plants & analogs
assembled by Keeper of the Trout
Section 2 :
Some members of the Zygophyllaceae in need of analytical work

Abronia maritima Nutt. (Positive for alkaloids. stem, leaf) Smolenski et al. 1975.

Balanites aegyptiaca Del. (Positive for alkaloids. leaf) Smolenski et al. 1975.

Couepia polyandra Rose (Positive for alkaloids. leaf, twigs, flowers, fruit.) Smolenski et al. 1975.

Guaiacum coulteri A. Gray (Positive for alkaloids. stem, leaf, fruit.) Smolenski et al. 1975.

Guaiacum officinale L. (Positive for alkaloids. stem, leaf, flower, stem-wood, stem-bark.) Smolenski et al. 1975.

Kallstroemia brachystylis Vail (Weak positive for quaternary alkaloids. stem, leaf, flower.) Fong et al. 1972.

Morkillia mexicana Rose and Painter (Strong positive for alkaloids. stem, leaf, flower, fruit.) Fong et al. 1972.

Porlieria angustifolia Gray (Positive for alkaloids. stem, leaf, flower, fruit.) Fong et al. 1972. [Ed.: Caltrop has long been known to form a fluorescent solution with water.]

Tribulus cistoides L. (Positive alkaloid screening. root, stem, leaf, flower, fruit. Fong et al. 1972 and Smolenski et al. 1975.)

Tribulus maximus Linn. (Used as a contraceptive. Whole plant. Tarafder 1983a)

Z. fabago, P. harmala and Z. elephantidens are mentioned on page 14 of Sniekus citing Ivanov et al. 1965 and Awad et al. 1967.

Fagonia bruguieri DC, Zygophyllum coccinum L & Zygophyllum fabago L. had alkaloid detected in Al-Shamma & Mitscher 1979


In Francesco Festi and Giorgio Samorini's excellent profile of Tribulus terrestris [in 1997 Eleusis 7: 24-32] they mentioned:

Fagonia cretica was reported to contain small amounts of harmine.

Tribulus terrestris (Caltrop; Tribolo; Puncture-vine; Goat's-head) contains low concentrations of b-carbolines; a small percentage of which is harmine. Traces of harmine were reported from the seeds.

Zygophyllum fabago was reported to contain 0.002% harmine; using the whole plant.


All three contain other alkaloids.

Note: Porlieria angustifolia is also called Caltrop. The Zygophyllaceae is usually referred to as the Caltrop family or simply the Caltrops.