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Alexander Shulgin -- Memorial Gathering
August 2nd, 1pm-6pm, Berkeley CA
from: _Drugs and Drug Abuse_, 2nd Ed., by: Cox, Jacobs, LeBlanc, Marshman,
and Fehr, 1987.


EPHEDRINE

Drug Class: CNS stimulant

Ephedrine is a naturally occuring central nervous system stimulant obtained
from the plant _Ephedra equisetina_. It is now also produced by chemical
synthesis, the synthetic product being marketed in the form of its salt,
ephedrine sulfate; it occurs as a white crystalline powder with a bitter
taste, soluble in water and very soluble in alcohol. Ephedrine is closely
related in structure to methamphetamine, although its CNS actions are much
less potent and also longer-acting than those of the amphetamines. Its
peripheral stimulant actions are similar to but less powerful than those of
epinephrine (also called adrenaline), a hormone produced in the body by the
adrenal glands.
 
Ephedrine has moderately potent bronchial muscle relaxant properties, and
therefore is used for symptomatic relief in milder cases of asthmatic
attack; it is also used to reduce the risk of acute attacks in the treatment
of chronic asthma. The typical adult dose range is 30-60 mg taken orally,
three to four times per day, in the form of tablets. Ephedrine in the form
of nose drops is also widely used to relieve nasal congestion associated
with upper respitory tract illnesses. It is also used to treat low blood
pressure, because it constricts blood vessels and stimulates certain actions
of the heart. Common side effects are qualitatively similar to those
produced by amphetamines and are generally milder. Higher doses (overdose)
can cause restlessness and anxiety, dizziness, insomnia, tremor, rapid
pulse, sweating, respiratory difficulties, confusion, hallucinations,
delerium, and (very infrequently) convulsions. The most dangerous symptoms
of overdose are abnormally high blood pressure and rapid, irregular
heartbeat. A dose of ephedrine only two to three times the theraputic
maximum can cause a significant increase in blood pressure. The elderly are
particularly sensitive to overdose, and there have been a few deaths among
such patients. Finally, a number of instances of psychosis, clinically
similar to amphetamine psychosis, have resulted from chronic high-dose
abuse; other effects of chronic abuse have not been adequately studied.

Tolerance develops to the main effects of ephedrine; however, temporary
abstinence restores sensitivity.

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Interesting point to note is that the theraputic dose maximum of 60 mg is
about 2 25 mg pills (the common OTC strength), while 'dangerous' amounts
would be 4 or more of the same pills.  By the way, if you're going to use
ephedrine more than once or twice, use a mail-order. The OTC prices are
outrageous: 100 pils @ 25 mg each should NOT cost more than about $10. 

------------------------------------------------------


Ephedrine is an adrenergic drug that works by stimulating alpha
and beta receptors thus causing the release of norepinephrine.
Alpha and beta receptors exist in the sympathetic nervous system,
(fight or flight) and stimulation causes increased heart rate,
bronchodilation, and vasoconstriction.



It was once a commonly prescribed drug for asthma, but newer drugs in the
xanthine class have less side effects.

Ephedrine is related to pseudoephedrine which was designed as a 
decongestant with less undesirable effects. 

Ephedra is a Chinese herb that's been used for centuries to treat
asthma.

Rather than purchasing it through mail order, you might want to 
ask the local pharmicist for Ephedrine sulfate in the 100 capsule
bottles as it's much cheaper that way. Though more difficult to find,
ephedrine is kept as a 'behind-the-counter' drug. Legal to purchase
without a Rx, but not put out on display.

Ephedrine taken with caffeine is a more pleasant stimulant combination
however be aware of the warnings concerning adrenergic drugs, which you
can discuss with someone qualified and licensed to do so.

=============================================================================

Newsgroups: misc.fitness,alt.drugs
From: n9020351@henson.cc.wwu.edu (James Douglass Del-Vecchio)
Subject: Re: '30 BIGGEST LIES' -- The Third Ten [3/3]
Message-ID: <1994Jan19.194717.16838@henson.cc.wwu.edu>
Date: Wed, 19 Jan 1994 19:47:17 GMT

jmccorm@osuunx.ucc.okstate.edu (Justin McCormack) writes:
>On another note, it seems I've got a problem of my own. About 3/4 of a
>year ago, I started taking Epherdine. I've worked my way up from getting
>an awesome boost on 2 or 3, to having mild effects with 10 or 12. Yup,
>I've built up a tolerance.
>Are there any alternatives to bringing my tolerance down back to 2 or 3,
>aside from stop taking them alltogether? I've tried stacking it with
>caffine and asprin, and it doesn't seem to have any additional affect.

	There is no other way.  Tolerance is the enevitable result
of using it.  To reduce the tolerance, you stop using it.