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Fundamental #10: Decide how much to use and measure dosages carefully.
Methcathinone HCl FAQ
by klday@unity.ncsu.edu
v 2.2 - Jan 8, 1998
drugs@hyperreal.org
Erowid Note: This FAQ was not authored by Erowid. It may include out-of-date and/or incorrect information. Please check the version date to see when it was most recently revised. It appears on Erowid as part of our historical archives. For current information, see Erowid's summary pages in the substance's main vault.
Contents:
1. What is methcathinone?
2. Theory and Concepts leading to this synthetic approach
3. Preparation - A simple and practical approach.
4. Testing the product from above synthesis
5. Comentary on the drug itself
6. Anecdotal reports of use
7. Sources for materials listed in the synthesis
8. Extensions - chemically similar drugs [aminoketones]
9. Other Data - References and copies of journal articles.
10. Questions & Answers regarding this file.
11. Conclusion - about the FAQ itself

***************************What is Methcathinone****************************

the designer drug 'methcathinone HCl' is also known as Cat, Jeff, Mulka or Ephedrone.

It is a schedule-1 stimulant, making it flat-out illegal like Heroin or LSD (Methamphetamine, on the other hand, is LEGAL with a valid triplicate prescription.)

Chemically, Methcathinone is 2-(methylamino)propiophenone. The name Methcathinone is derived from the name of the drug cathinone, obviously, which in turn is derived from "cathine", an alternate name for norpseudephedrine, an isomer of phenpropanolamine. The name "Ephedrone" is obviously derived from the fact that "Ephedrone" is the ketone of the alcohol that is Ephedrine.

 _____________________________________________________________________
|                                                                     |
| Contrast the molecules for informational purposes only:             |
| Methcathinone:         (pseud)Ephedrine:        Methamphetamine:    |
|   _____                  _____                    _____             |
|  /  _  \  O  H          /  _  \  OH H            /  _  \  H  H      |
| <  (_)  >-C--C--CH3    <  (_)  >-C--C--CH3      <  (_)  >-C--C--CH3 |
|  \_____/     |          \_____/  H  |            \_____/  H  |      |
|             HN--CH3                HN--CH3                  HN--CH3 |
|                                                                     |
| pseudephedrine and ephedrine differ only in the isomerism of the OH | 
| group. They are in most ways identical as precursors to either drug.|
|_____________________________________________________________________|                                                                          
********************************Theory**************************************

The KMnO4 Synthesis: Theory and Background

This synthesis uses KMnO4, a damn strong oxidizer that under most conditions might not be the ideal reactant for this synthesis, but when treated with some degree of respect, will work extremely well.

This synthesis relies on two principles understandable by anyone who's had chemistry at the college level.. or any experience with chemicals at all. Even baking a cake.

There's two other synthesises making their way about the net, that I am aware of. The first uses the less potent CHROMATES [which are more toxic] at room temperature, and the second uses KMnO4 with a variety of other weird things and conditions - albeit at room temperature.

Seeking to avoid the chromates while also avoiding using a lot of more advanced technique and equipment, leaves only one option. Slowing KMnO4 down to a reasonable rate.

1. The reaction in the FAQ is dilluted considerably...
2. The reaction in the FAQ is done way colder than any other cat synth.

Presto, the two key elements to changing the rate of a reaction. The end result is quite pleasing and economical, and the reaction is about as fast as the chromate recipe.

Other than that, the only commentary on the recipe is that its a standard alcohol to ketone oxidization proceedure for the most part. Yield, when measured is likely to vary according due to a few things:

1. The efficiency of the pseudephedrine extraction employed.
2. Temperature of the reaction - higher temperatures are far more apt to yield side product [deamination?] which will be lost.
3. Care taken during solvent "wash" of final product.
4. Realize that KCl is a very likely to be present in the final product. and adjust estimated yield from weight accordingly.

*******************************Preparation**********************************

The objective of this procedure is to produce methcathinone in a reletively pure form. This was accomplished as evidenced by a residue/burn test, and quite a few testimonials from users. A secondary objective was to not require complicated lab proceedures - avoiding even an acid-base extraction and to stray away from toxic byproducts.

Upon completion, your methcathinone should be "pure" with a small potassium supplement...

The methcathinone produced by this proceedure is no doubt not as pure as that which may be produced using a typical acid-base solvent extraction, but certainly rivals it nicely. And the conditions required for this method are far less demanding, as none of the toxic chromates are used.

NEEDED FOR PREPARATION:
Collander w/ reletively small holes
Shaved Ice
Pseudephedrine tablets, 100 of 30 mg each.
Potassium Permaganate crystals, of reasonably pure origin
[no lead, other toxic metals allowed.]
Purified water [TAP WATER WILL *NOT* FUNCTION ADEQUATELY IN MOST CASES]
Refridgerator chilled to just over 0c.
Turkey Baster or other method of measuring water in mililiter quantities.
An area heated or chilled to "room temperature" (ROUGHLY 25c or 75f)
Isopropanol for quenching KMnO4.
Ethanol optional for speeding drying process.
Acetone for the washing of crystals.

Most kitchens do NOT come equipped with a scale capable of measuring individual grams, let alone miligrams. And in many states, possession of such a finely tuned instrument, while not a crime, certainly is admissable as one of many items of evidence to be used in a criminal investigation. Definitly something to be avoided. Keep all the ingredients and all the labware in its "everday-use" place, and there's no evidence to support the existance of a cat lab. And no need to manufacture the stuff in the high desert regions either, since weird scents are for the most part avoided.

CLEANING THE PSEUDEPHEDRINE TABLETS
[kudo's to POPeye for his document "Getting the Red out"]
100 of the 30 mg generic pseudephedrine tablets were placed into a collander containing about the same "volume" of crushed ice. They were swirled around in this collander over a sink (with running water to wash the color down the drain) until all the ice had melted and washed thru. The tablets were then rinsed once with distilled water, and removed to a glass jar for extracting.

* NOTE: The running water kept the drain clean, but wasn't ever in contact
* with the tablets themselves. This confused a number of people. Obviously,
* its not necessary for this... just convienent I guess.
* Do not wash the tablets UNDER WATER with crushed ice. Rather, place
* them in the colander with crushed ice, thats it, and stir them around,..
* The very cold ice does a minimum of disolving WHILE its abrasion removes the coloring.

MEASURING OUT & PREPARING THE KMnO4 FOR REACTION:
KMnO4 is saturated at 25c in water - 100 ml of solution holds 7.43g This time I will be using just under 3g of pseudephedrine (if extract was perfect would be exactly 3g pseudephedrine). Keep in mind that when preparing the saturated solution you need room temperature and time - you need to let the crystals settle!!! Excess (undisolved) KMnO4 will stay "swirled in" the solution. Let it settle for a while at room temp, _then_ measure the 15mL or so... Failure to do this will result in a failed synthesis. If you are too impatient to do this, then you should purchase a miligram-quantity scale.

In acid conditions, 1 mole of KMnO4 will oxidize 5 hydrogens. In basic conditions, 1 mole of KMnO4 will oxidize 3 hydrogens. We won't be specifically using either, because KMnO4 also works nicely under neutral conditions.

It can be reasonably anticipated that the Pseudephedrine HCl will posess somewhat of an acidic character, so we will 'assume' acidic conditions, which also will allow us to avoid using TOO MUCH KMnO4... small amounts of pseudephedrine will go unnoticed in the final product, but gooey messes will not, for obvious reasons.

The Pseudephedrine/KMnO4 ratio should be 2.5Mole to 1Mole, according to previous calculations. 3g pseudephedrine is 18.15mMole, therefore 7.26mMole of KMnO4, or 1.148g will be needed for the reaction. This means that 15.45mL of concentrated solution at room temperature will be needed. Obviously us kitchen chemists can't be that precise, so aim a little high, as previous margins were set about 10% low... use AT LEAST 15.45mL prepared at AT LEAST 25c.

This 15.5 or so mL of solution is then diluted with 250 mL H2O, and is started chilling in a refridgerator, with just over 0c the goal.

EXTRACTING AND PREPARING THE PSEUDEPHEDRINE HCl FOR REACTION:

Place the just washed and probably slightly red pseudephedrine tablets in a jar, and pour 150 mL of water over them. Now heat this in a microwave at low power until it gets "hot" but not boiling. Stir the crap until the tablets fall all to pieces, then let the powdery FILLER material settle, leaving pseudephedrine in solution all by its lonesome, or at least mostly by its lonesome.

Slowly pour this THRU coffee filter into another jar.

When this is done, scrape/shake/get any powder caught in the filler and stick it in the FIRST jar, the one that might have some sludge at the bottom still. Now add another 150 mL of water, heat until "hot", stir, then let settle. Pour this thru the coffee filter.

Get the powder stuck in the filter (again) back with the sludge and add still another 150 mL and heat until "hot". This time pour thru the filter, and your done.

It is worth noting that the filler material clogs the filters and will dramatically increase time for filteration to take place, like from 30 seconds to 30 minutes. The enlightened will at once realize that the easiest way to avoid this is to decant the top layer thru the filter first, waiting until necessary to dump the sludge onto the filter.

Place the pseudephedrine solution in the fridge to chill, next to the KMnO4 solution. Label the jar so that in the event you are raided during the proceedure more evidence will exist to prosecute you.

*
* It should be noted at this point that much feedback has been recieved
* from "failed" synthesis caused entirely by not letting the mixture chill
* long enough. If your impatient, place it in the freezer until ice begins
* to form then allow it to warm just enough to melt before mixing
* remember, the ___ONLY___ reason this works at all is because the dilution
* and temperature are such that the permaganate oxidizes the alcohol to a
* ketone and then GETS USED UP before it can do anything else.
*

NOW THE FUN BEGINS (THE REACTION):

And for the next few hours, nothing happens. This is a good time to stop for lunch. After a few hours, the two cold solutions are mixed together, stirred, and replaced in the fridge overnight (8-12 hours).

In the morning, instead of a PURPLE color in the jar, there is a mostly clear layer, and a brownish gunk on the bottom, which agitates easily. Because its safer to err on the side of caution, 100 mL of 70% isopropyl alcohol is added and stirred.

If a purple color remains, odds are that an EXCESS of KMnO4 was used and the synthesis will fail, or that not enough time was allowed for the reaction to take place. Do not allow more than 12 hours in any case, instead give the KMnO4 something else to chew on [the isopropyl alcohol]. This is the sole reason for the addition of isopropanol. Ethanol or methanol were not used because they tend to oxidize further to substances not so easily seperated from the product. Acetone from the isopropanol will evaporate easily.

Let the mixture sit for roughtly 2 hours on a shelf, and at the end of this period it should be around room temperature. Time to room temp will vary with dimentions and thickness of the container, of course.

This mixture is filtered thru two coffee filters stacked on top of each other with the intention of catching all the little maganeese particles that have precipitated. In an ideal world, you can do this on the first try and get a perfectly clear liquid on the bottom. In a less than ideal world, it was necessary to again RECOOL SLIGHTLY the filtered mix, and filter this thru another pair of coffee filters. My hunch is that the slight cooling in the fridge, and/or the extra time allowed the rest of the maganeese to 'clump' together into pieces too big to escape unfiltered.

* many have found two, three, or even four refiltrations to be necessary
* apparently the choice in coffee filter places a dramatic role. The truly
* patient chemist could use a PAPER filter, provided it is free of anything
* that would end up in the mixture [coloring, etc]

This final solution was found to be basic with a pool test kit, no suprise if you figure that the HCl part of the Pfed was used up in the oxidation as 'acid'. Results will vary on the final pH. If its already acidic, you dont need to add any more acid (heheh)

* most have found a pool test kit woefully inadequate, and have suggested
* using pH paper. I almost wonder if the amateur pH meter made from boiling
* red cabbages wouldnt be better, as it is also wider range. See below.

MAKING GLITTERING WHITE CRYSTALS:

If not yet, during this part of the proceedure you will definitly smell the methcathinone. It has a stronger odor than methamphetamine, BUT the odor of methcathinone is _pleasant_, even to those who have not experienced the drug (some people LEARN to like certain smells, but cat just smells plain good.)

* The smell has been most closely likened to pistacio ice cream, of all
* things. Will wonders never cease...

Considering the fact that there's either isopropanol or acetone in the above mixture, its probably not a wise idea to just load your rig straight from it and shoot. And considering you might want to give some of your creation away, it'd sure be nice to have a transportable form.

* NOTE: A *very small* amount of conc. HCl is required. Add it one drop
* at a time with stiring.

Now to make sure the stuff is indeed the HCl form... Add HCl with stiring to adjust the pH to slightly acidic, i.e. just under 7 (like 5 - 6.5). This will ensure that Methcathinone HCl is produced, and not the freebase, which can decompose easily. While the original FAQ suggesting using a pool test kit to measure the change in pH across a very narrow range, many people haven't got this to work, and instead a less sensitive agent [pH paper?] is reccomended. Perhaps even the classic "red cabbage" pH tester will work... see any kids chemistry book for more details on this plant-based pH test... In any case, if its concentrated HCl, add it ONE DROP AT A TIME with stiring and checking of the pH. If you add too much HCl, the crystals wont seem to dry out properly. Fear not, place them in a freezer or some such, then take them out let them thaw & dry more, they will eventually freeze *after* the excess HCl moves into the atmosphere.

Pour the stuff into a glass (PYREX!) brownie dish. Place on a stove and heat gently from below _while_ blowing lightly with a hair dryer (avoid splashing - it wastes drugs and leaves residue.) Eventually there will start to be a really really thick gooey mess. Adding methanol or ethanol to this thins it while speeding the drying process - a definite plus. In my case, ethanol was used, although methanol may be preferable. Doing this is probably a must to dry the crystals at a reasonable temperature in a reasonable amount of time, unless you happen to have a vaccuum pump lying around....

*** While it would seem that adding liquid would increase drying time, this is not the case because the alcohol helps remove water from the crystals - almost dry crystals can be heated very hot and still not dry. For best results do not add the extra alcohol until the drying stuff is kinda thick, or the first crystals have started to form.

Be careful not to overheat the crystals. If they MELT, you've almost definitly screwed up.... :)

Washing the crystals with acetone _is_ a possibility but can dramatically reduce yields, as Methcathinone HCl is apparently pretty soluble in the stuff. Just save the acetone and let it dry all alone, somewhere, for a product that is smokable but too oily to chop & sniff... Methcathinone is easily recovered from an 'acetone-wash' by slow evaporation, and such recovered globs/hunks/crystals/slime/ooze/whatever you get should be saved and washed again, to recover any lost crystals.

Strangely, certain solvents will affect the potency of the end product. Disolution of the base in methanol will result in racemization! If you are especially (dis/) pleased with the results of a particular batch and can't figure out why, think back to what solvents were used in drying and/or washing.

**********************************TESTING***********************************

BURN:

A burn-test of acetone-washed methcathinone left almost NO residue. The methcathinone HCl was heated over methane flame in a spoon. It first melted, then began boiling, and finally literally BURST INTO FLAMES and was gone except for a spot where the spoon was possibly corroded.

A burn-test of the oily methcathinone from the acetone wash which evaporated (and would have been lost had I not kept the byproduct of the acetone wash) performed the same way! Its oily nature prevented clean chopping, but upon washing with ethyl-ether good product was formed from this oily cat.

A burn-test of ether cleaned acetone-wash extract left nothing behind but a slight discoloring of the shiny part of the spoon, probably due again to reaction with the HCl or reaction with air catalysed by the salt nature of the crystals (?)

TASTE:

Bitter. No evidence of numbing of the tounge or sinuses was evidenced. Snorting the product produced intense burning feelings in the nostrils, stronger than saline solution or (laughably, I did this once to prove a point) sugar (which doesnt feel at all!), about as much sting as with methamphetamine, and no where near as much sting as was once obtained from snorting diphenhydramine concentrated from benedryl (a very stupid experiment in nasal congestion...)

SMELL:

Typical of a ketone - sweet. Once report says it smells like "pistaccio ice cream" when wet. The dry crystals dont smell all that much, but it doesnt take a genius to realize that once they get dogs trained for this stuff detection will be simple.

melting point of the HCl form is 182-184c according to listing below.

*********************************COMMENTARY*********************************

Methcathinone was used as an antidepressant in the former soviet union. This almost makes good sense, as even in abuse doses the 'hangover' is nowhere near as severe as with the amphetamines. Indeed, bupropion, a close chemical relative, is used as an antidepressant in todays United States.

Methcathinone was considered by one company for marketing in the United States as an antidepressant in the 1950's, but was shelved due to "severe side effects". If you've ever taken Imipramine or another TCA, or know of the pharmacology of the MAOI antidepressants, you really wonder about the truth of this statement. The "severe side effect" that shelved the project was no doubt addiction and abuse, not an actual physiological side effect...

If I had to characterize the drug, I would say it induces mania more so than methamphetamine, but psychosis much less. The initial dose produced some paranoia, but subsequent doses did not make this worse (?) and in fact seemed to lessen it. This is definitly a drug for goofing off, unlike methamphetamine which makes one 'serious'.

Methamphetamine may dramatically help certain peoples academic and or business careers, but it doesnt appear likely that methcathinone would do this, as it increases distractability rather than decreases it.

"The drug didn't catch on in Ann Arbor. 'it would be hard to go to classes on cat,' Boyer theorized"
-L.A. Times article on methcathinone abuse crackdowns
************************ANECDOTAL REPORTS OF USE****************************

No dilation of the pupils was noticed at any level (?!?), however both pulse rate and blood pressure were up quite a bit. Upon sniffing, mouth instantly "watered", and thru the experience my mouth did not become dry. So +/-cholinergic side effects appear absent, unlike either amphetamines or cocaine.

When the drug wears off, sleep is much easier to obtain. The first night after a day of CATting I slept very well, but after the next day of the same I awakened after only 2 hours of sleep and had to take diphenhydramine to return to sleep.

Withdrawl is characterized by sadness and feelings of despair, along with a lack of energy. Others have reported a physical withdrawl, but these reports come from the highDose michaganCatNut crowd. Alternately felt hopeless or giddy and almost euphoric. Caffeine appears to dramatically alleviate the depression.

"I hadn't known I was hooked. I felt like I had a temperature of 1 million degrees. I could hardly breathe. My whole body ached"
-Grimes on his experience in a detox
tank in the Marquette county jail.

********************************SOURCES*************************************

Pseudephedrine - From the tablets, silly.
HCl - Any hardware store, as "muratic acid".
KMnO4 - searsWater Softener Section, to regenerate iron filters
water softener section of Home Depot ($6/lb?).
- found it at a farm supply store. About $3.00 per llb.
- Used to stain bacteria/biologicals for slides [if going
this route, dont buy a kilogram obviously]
Acetone - Hardware stores (used as paint thinner, to clean grease
of off things, etc)

*******************************EXTENSIONS***********************************

Equimolar amounts of phenpropanolamine, norephedrine or norpseudephedrine may be easily substituted to produce CATHINONE instead of methcathinone. Data indicates this is a less potent drug, but this is easily remedied by taking more (obviously) and different people may or may not prefer a slightly different side effect profile, etc etc etc.

> I notice all the generic phenpropanolamine I've come across contains
> vitamin c. Would it be necessary to extract that first to make cathinone?

Yes, you must remove the vitamin C. There is little doubt in my mind that such a compound could make a simple oxidation into a gooey hell. Antoxidant that it is, Vitamin C may be in there to keep the stuff from oxidizing on the shelves... some catHeads have noticed that ground sudafed from Burroughs Wellcome has a very mild methcathinone smell to it.... weird, no?

> What other Aminoketones are popular / widely used, and can I make them
> myself?

Diethylpropion - Tenuate, a C-4 (USA) diet pill If you can produce diethylphenpropanolamine, you can use it in the above reaction to produce Diethylpropion, although the time involved makes it doubtful that you'd want to - this drug is not all that potent or interesting. DEPPA could probably be produced in decent yields via a controlled temperature reaction with base, PPA and chloroethane, although I have no idea what conditions would be ideal. Expected sideproducts would be unchanged PPA, EtPPA, and (Et3)PPA+ ions...

Bupropion - Wellbutrin, an unscheduled (USA) antidepressant Nope. meta-Chloro,N-tert-butyl-Cathinone, or bupropion, would no doubt be problematic due to the meta-chloro grouping - difficult to produce in a home environment, if not damn near impossible, and probably a point of side reactions if the ephedrine of the compound were to be oxidized. Additionally, abuse potential for Bupropion is probably lower than that of even caffeine. Caged rhesus monkeys will slam it, but think about the condition of their life: In such a miserable state anything must be a relief.

*********************************OTHER DATA*********************************

* Zingel, K.Y., Dovensky, W., Crossman, A. and Allen, A.,
"Ephedrone: 2-Methylamino-1-Phenylpropane-1-One (Jeff)," Journal of
Forensic Sciences, v. 36, No.3, May 1991, pp.915-920

Synthesis & Info from above article follows:
[I really *do not* like this synthesis]
A 2000-mL Erlenmeyer flask, equipped with a magnetic stirring bar, was charged with methylene chloride (200 mL), acetic acid (10 mL) water (100 mL), potassium permanganate (2g) and ephedrine hydrochloride (2g). The solution was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. This was followed by the addition of sufficient sodium hydrogen sulfite to reduce the precipitated manganese dioxide. The aqueous phase was made basic with 5N sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and the methylene chloride was separated. The organic layer was extracted with 0.5N sulfuric acid (H2SO4). Isolation of the acid layer followed by basification with sodium bicarbonate and extraction with methylene chloride (50 mL, three times), removed the product into the organic phase. The solvent was concentrated by rotary evaporation, followed by column chromatography through neutral alumina with methylene chloride. Solvent removal through rotary evaporation produced a colorless liquid which was disolved in hexane. Gaseous hydrochloric acid was bubbled into the hexane to precipitate the amine hydrochloride to produce a 1-g (50%) yield of 2-methylamino-1-phenylpropan-1-one hydrochloride.

Ephedrone, like methamphetamine, processes one asymmetric center. Depending upon the synthetic precursor, l-ephedrine (1R,2S) or d-pseudoephedrine (1S,2R), the product expected would be d-ephedrone (2S) or l-ephedrone (2R), respectively.

[Note by Rhodium: This stereochemistry is in error. While the configuration of l-ephedrine is written correctly, d-pseudoephedrine has the configuration (1S, 2S) and not the one given above. As oxidation of the alcohol eliminates the chiral center differing between the two, both will give rise to l-ephedrone and not the oxymoronic isomer specified above (d-ephedrone has R configuration, and is not produced by oxidation of the above precursor isomers). See Rhodium's Ephedrone Chemistry Page]

However, depending on the heat of the reaction or harsh extraction conditions the enolizable ketone will result in a racemic d,l-ephedrone.

* Young, R. and R.A. Glennon. "Cocaine-Stimulus Generalization to Two New Designer Drugs: Methcathinone and 4-Methylaminorex" Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 45(1) 229-231, 1993

* Glennon, R.A., Yousif, M., Kalix, P. "Methcathinone: A new and potent amphetamine-like agent." Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 26:547-5451, 1987.

* British Patent, 768,772 (1954). [This is the "classic" recipe using the chromates as oxidizers] A solution composed of 0.99g of sodium dichromate and 133g of concentrated sulfuric acid dissolved in 4.46 cc of water is added slowly with stirring to 1.65g of l-ephedrine dissolved in 4.7 cc of water and 0.55 cc of concentrated sulfuric acid at room temperature. The mixture is stirred at room temperature for an additional 4 to 6 hours and then made alkaline with sodium hydroxide soloution. the aqueous mixture is extracted with two volumes of chloroform and then with two volumes of ether. The organic extracts containing the free base of 1-a-methylaminoprophenone are combined, treated with an excess of dry hydrogen chloride and the solvents evaporated. The residual 1-a-methylaminopropiophenone hydrochloride is stirred with petroleum ether, collected and purified by dissolving in ethanol and reprecipitating with ether. m.p. 182-184 o C.

* Goldstone, M.S., "Cat - Methcathinone - A New Drug of Abuse" Journal of the American Medical Association v269 no 19 p2508 (letter) 1993 This article basically warns of methcathinone appearing on the streets. Notable claims are that the typical dosage is .5 to 1 gram a day (!!!) and that addicts describe long-lasting intoxicating effects of up to 6 days (I would assume this is repeated administration...). The article also states that "cat" costs US$100 per gram (!whatever!), and goes on to reccomend benzodiazepines for addicts (yay!) but antipsychotics for those who have overdone it and schiz'd out (boo!). The article also indicates that tolerance develops and disapates rapidly, something that happens with just about any stimulant, even caffeine...

[abstract follows immiadetly belowed, copied indirectly from MEDLINE]
TI - Methcathinone: a new and potent amphetamine-like agent.
AB - The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effect of N-monomethylation of phenylisopropylamine derivatives on amphetamine- like activity. In tests of stimulus generalization using rats trained to discriminate 1.0 mg/kg of (+)-amphetamine from saline, the N- monomethyl derivatives of 1-(X-phenyl)-2-aminopropane, where X = 2,4- dimethoxy (2,4-DMA), 3,4-dimethoxy (3,4-DMA), 2,4,5-trimethoxy (2,4,5,-TMA), and 2-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxy (MMDA-2), did not produce amphetamine-appropriate responding at the doses evaluated. However, the N-monomethyl derivative of cathinone (i.e., methcathinone), like cathinone, resulted in stimulus generalization. Further studies with this agent revealed that (a) in the amphetamine- trained animals, methcathinone (ED50 = 0.37 mg/kg) is more potent than racemic cathinone or racemic amphetamine (ED50 = 0.71 mg/kg in both cases), (b) methcathinone is capable of inducing release of radioactivity from [3H]dopamine-prelabeled tissue of rat caudate nucleus in a manner similar to that observed with cathinone, amphetamine, and methamphetamine, and (c) methcathinone is more potent than cathinone as a locomotor stimulant in mice as determined by their effect on spontaneous activity. The results of the present study provide evidence for a structural analogy between the prototypic psychostimulants amphetamine/methamphetamine and cathinone/methcathinone, and lend further support to the concept that amphetamine and cathinone correspond in their pharmacological effects.

Regarding CATHINONE and the Khat Plant:

* Teri Randall "Khat Abuse Fuels Somali Conflict, Drains Economy" JAMA Jan 6, 1993 Vol 269, No. 1, p. 12 & 15 This article contains a number of political interpretations, but also states:

"Its users report euphoria and increased alertness, although their concentration and judgement are objectively impaired" [This fits nicely with my observation that Methcathinone is not useful as a drug for treating ADHD - amphetamine will improve ability to concentrate]

******************************** QUESTIONS *********************************

The following are some questions I have recieved about this synthesis, They have been paraphrased for brevity.

> What brand of pseudephedrine is best???

HINT: The smaller the pill, the less filler material it has. Your safest bet on this one is to find out for yourself. Compared to just about anything else in this world, pseudephedrine is cheap. Purchase and find out.

> Is there any faster or less labor-intensive method of drying a batch?

An informed netter replies:
>You are absolutely right. I "understand" that placing the "stuff" into a
>glass casserole dish, then immersing in a double boiler setup does the job
>much nicer, while still being well within the means of the average kitchen.

The main things to keep in mind are the addition of ethanol to thin the stuff while drying, and the use of a large surface area, to promote moving solvent into the air, both water and ethanol.

> What of I.V. usage of the drug produced from this method?

I wouldn't reccomend it as this method avoids an acid-base extraction. While certainly less toxic than the chromates, injection of "other" material ought to be avoided.

> This is the same method of making cat that you wrote up some time ago,
> but you said that it (the synthesis you typed up) was crap. Is this
> synthesis the same as the one you were using? (I never read yours)

Not the same by any stretch of the imagination. All the difference in the world results from using exact amounts of KMnO4, highly diluted, and in an extremely chilled condition.

> The FAQ said 70% isopropanol, can this % be varied?

Yes, that is just fine [esp. since its being added to a water-containing solution anyways :) The purpose is to provide "something else" [another alcohol] to be oxidized so that the Methcathinone won't get chewed up if any oxidizer remains...

Do not substitue another alcohol for this *unless* it is a "secondary" alcohol. Primary alcohols like ethanol and methanol can oxidize further to substances that will not evaporate from the mixture as easily. The isopropanol will oxidize to acetone, which evaporates easily.

> What drug-salts of methcathinone are there?

The HCl form is the easiest and probably safest sniffable form. Its also pretty resistant to decomposition [esp. compared to freebase form]. Obviously other forms could be easily made, but why bother?

> Will "Hardware store HCl" work?

Yes, in fact any aqeuous solution of HCl alone will work. Concentration doesn't even really matter provided that pH is monitored - add the amount needed to achieve the desired pH change.

> When your putting the jars in the fridge do you also put the lid on
> them or does it even matter?

Unless the reagents are attacked by drippingWeenieDogs it shouldn't matter all that much. Best to place it safe and use lids anyways.

> What is "filler material"?

The other crap in any medicine tablet / pill / capsule that holds it together. Were your antibiotics to come without 'filler material', they would also arrive in a little plastic baggie just like the illegal drugs.

> If you want to make life easier for kitchen chemists, a "tablespoon" is
> about 15mL

Oh. Cool. Thanks. Nevertheless, a tablespoon is usually metalic, and therefor probably not to cool to use with permaganate solution :)

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